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Full text of "Federal Regional Design Assembly, Western States : Federal Regions VIII, IX, X, October 30-31, 1975, Denver, Colorado, Colorado Women's College, Houston Fine Arts Center"

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Assembly »!, 

Western >/* 

Federal Regions VIII. IX. X 

October 30-31. 1975 
Denver. Colorado 
Colorado Women s College 
Houston Fine Arts Center 




Sponsored by the \ 

National Endowment for the Arts 
with assistance from 
Department of the Interior 
General Services Administration 






New Mexico 

North Dakota 


South Dakota 











For two centuries the federal 
government has been dealing 
in design matters through its 
responsibilities for construct- 
ing and furnishing office build- 
ings, printing publications and 
hiring design professionals. 
Today there is no question 
that it IS the largest 
client of design services 
in the world. 

Three years ago the federal 
government acknowledged 
its responsibility to take the 
leadership necessary to 
exemplify the highest stand- 
ards of design excellence In 
May 1972 the White House 
initiated the Federal Design 
Improvement Program and 
asked the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts to coor- 
dinate its implementation. 

Four major elements com- 
prise the Federal Design 
Improvement effort: 1) De- 
sign Assemblies; 2) a review 
and expansion of the 1962 
Guiding Principles for Fed- 
eral Architecture; 3) a Federal 

Graphics Improvement Pro- 
gram; and 4) revised Civil 
Service procedures for re- 
cruiting and hiring design 
professionals for government 
service The significant prog- 
ress made in each of these 
areas is highlighted in Nancy 
Hanks s address to the Fed- 
eral Regional Design Assem- 
bly Western States on 
page six. 

The objective of Design 
Assemblies is to increase 
federal administrators' aware- 
ness and understanding of 
design as a management re- 
source. The Assemblies are 
devoted to explaining and 
illustrating how design can 
serve as an effective manage- 
ment tool to save time and 
money, enhance communica- 
tion and simplify maintenance. 

Since 1973. three Design 
Assemblies have been con- 
vened The First and Second 
Federal Design Assemblies 
were held in Washington. DC. 
The first Federal Regional 

Design Assembly /Western 
States represented a pilot 
effort to hold an Assembly for 
federal administrators and 
designers working in the 15 
state western region Four- 
hundred federal and state 
officials attended the two-day 
program that included ses- 
sions on architecture, interior 
design/industrial design, 
landscape architecture/ 
environmental planning and 
visual communications. 

These proceedings record 
the presentations made by 
each of the Assembly s 
speakers The subjects and 
issues discussed are as rele- 
vant now as they were at the 
Regional Assembly. 

Lam Lattin 


Federal Regional Design 

Assembly/Western States 

A panel discussion during tlie 
landscape architecture session 
m Foote Music Hall 


4 General Session 

1 Architecture 

20 Interior Design 
Industrial Design 

28 Visual Communications 

36 Landscape Architecture 
Environmental Planning 

41 Governor's Remarks 

General Session 

6 Robert N Sheets 

6 Ttie Federal Design 
Improvement Program 

Nancy Hanks 

8 Keynote Address 

The Honorable 
Rogers C B Morton 

Robert N. Sheets has served as 
Executive Director of the 
Colorado Council on the Arts 
and Humanities since 1968 
Currently he is a member of the 
Board of Directors of the 
Western States Arts Foundation, 
a member of the Colorado 
Humanities Committee, and an 
advisor to Historic Denver. Inc 

Nancy Hanks has served as 
Chairman of the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the 
National Council on the Arts 
since 1969 Prior to 1969. Miss 
Hanks was President of the 
Associated Councils of the Arts; 
Executive Secretary of the 
Special Studies Project. Rocke- 
feller Brothers Fund, and Project 
Coordinator for the Rockefeller 
Panel Reports entitled The Per- 
forming Arts: Problems and 
Prospects for America. 

Rogers C. B. Morton was 

appointed Secretary of Com- 
merce in May. 1975 after serving 
as Secretary of the Interior 
Chairman of the Republican 
National Committee and as Con- 
gressman from Maryland s 
Eastern Shore for seven years 
Since the Regional Assembly. 
Mr Morton has been appointed 
Counselor to the President of 
the United States. 

Patchwork Puppet Productions: 
Ingrid Crepeau i Peter Principle), 
puppet designer; Sarah Toth 
Yochum (Millie Modern), author; 
Julian Yochum (Leroy Letter- 
man), author Patchwork Puppet 
Productions is a professional 
puppet company residing m 
Washington. DC The members 
of Patchwork were involved in 
the writing, performance, de- 
sign and construction of an ex- 
tensive variety of traditional and 
originally-scripted puppet pro- 
ductions for the Smithsonian 
Resident Puppet Theater 

Patchwork Production s puppet 
vignette. The Client-Editor- 
Designer Connection, made a 
number of cogent statements 
about improved federal graphic 
design as an important national 

^ i- 



.«W ^^■'. 

Opening Remarks 

Robert N. Sheets 

On behalf of the Colorado 
Council on the Arts and 
Humanities it is my pleasure 
to welcome you to Denver 
and this first Federal Re- 
gional Design Assembly The 
Colorado Council and its staff 
IS proud to have assisted the 
National Endowment for the 
Arts in the preparation of 
these next two days and I 
would like to recognize the 
Colorado Council Chairman 
Robert B Yegge for his fine 
leadership m this regard. 

Having just returned from a 
three-week tour of the Arts 

Councils of Great Britain, I am 
full of the enthusiasm and 
commitment to quality of 
design and how it affects our 
lives. England, Scotland and 
Wales today are living testa- 
ments of a designed historical 

When we toured the mining 
districts of Wales it became 
infinitely clearer to me how 
great the designed heritage of 
the Ronda Valley has affected 
the architecture of Colorado. 
The role of design in our 
human fabric is a universal 

association and its ability to 
communicate better under- 
standing between peoples is 
as strong on the plus side as 
the absence of quality design 
is strong in the misunder- 
standings of people To design 
IS to communicate, and our 
goal here these next two days 
IS to challenge our senses as 
government representatives 
to open the doors within our 
bureaucracies to better com- 
munication through better 

The Federal Design 
Improvement Program 

Nancy Hanks 

We are getting started a little 
late— not this morning but late 
m this century In fact, the first 
Federal Regional Design 
Assembly could have been 
held 200 years ago. That s 
pretty late to begin when we 
think about it because the 
government was involved in 
design before there was a 
federal government. After all. 
the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence is a very beautiful 
and impressive work of 
graphics. And, 200 years ago, 
the Second Continental 
Congress considered the 
design and outfitting of the first 
American naval ships 

And what about the famous 
textile designer who designed 
a work of worldwide impact that 
remains as modern today as 
when it was first designed, the 
American flag'^ All my history 
books said the person was 
Betsy Ross— now people are 
saying it was Francis 
Hopkinson, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence 
from New Jersey. I don't know 
who designed the flag, but I 
don't think it makes that much 
difference— we got a good one, 
so you take your pick. 

As for architecture and urban 
planning, the federal govern- 
ment has been a major design 
client since its inception. After 
the Constitution was ratified in 
1 789, various cities wrangled 
for the honor— and the eco- 
nomic asset— of becoming the 
permanent seat of govern- 
ment. The argument was 
resolved with the decision to 

build a new capital from the 
ground up, a city that would 
reflect the new republic s 
ideals in its design and 

Pierre L Enfant was chosen to 
plan the city on the Potomac, 
and he was eminently quali- 
fied. Since L Enfant s day the 
United States Government has 
become the largest single 
design client in the world 
Uncle Sam is the busiest 
builder, the most prolific 
publisher and the most active 
purchaser of products from 
paper clips to interplanetary 

Because government is such 
an active design client, it 
should have been in the fore- 
front of design excellence. We 
should have been constantly 
setting an example. But for 
years the government did not 

Aware of that unhappy fact, 
four years ago the White House 
initiated the Federal Design 
Improvement Program and 
asked the National Endowment 
for the Arts to be its 

Interest in this Program has 
been widespread. We've had 
wonderful cooperation from 
most government agencies. 
This Assembly today, as you 
know, is co-sponsored by the 
General Services Administra- 
tion and by the Department of 
the Interior We have active 
cooperation of many other 
agencies, both state and 
federal. President Ford 
recently wrote: "The American 
people are right to expect 

excellence from their public 
officials and government. I 
firmly believe that, in order to 
inspire the people s pride in 
their government, we must 
provide them with manifest 
evidence of its vitality, creativ- 
ity and efficiency by setting the 
highest standards in architec- 
tural design, environmental 
planning and visual 

We all share this goal. Our 
purpose today and tomorrow is 
to discover new tools to help us 
meet it. We cannot inspire con- 
fidence by passively accepting 
the status quo, by saying 

We ve done thingsthiswayfor 
years, " or by ducking behind 
tired procedures established 
decades ago to solve problems 
that may no longer exist We 
must address modern prob- 
lems with modern tools, and 
design is one of them. Just as 
the founding fathers used the 
best available talent to reflect 
their highest ideals in their new 
capital, so can we in our own 
time nurture excellence. 

The Federal Design Improve- 
ment Program has four 
components: 1 ) a program to 
review and expand the 1962 
Guiding Principles For Federal 
Architecture: 2) a program to 
improve federal graphics: 3) a 
program to develop new civil 
service recruiting and rating 
procedures for design profes- 
sionals; and 4) an education 
program for federal administra- 
tors and designers, of which 
this Assembly is a part 

Just a word about each of the 

four components. They all link 
together The ongoing study of 
federal architecture has the 
goal of making government 
buildings notonly more inviting 
and attractive but more useful, 
more meaningful and more a 
part of the community in which 
they exist To date, three 
reports have been issued* 
These reports are being read, 
discussed and debated. They 
put to rest the misguided myth 
that a government building 
must be a brand new, isolated 
office block occupied exclu- 
sively by government workers. 
The reports elaborate the 
premise that older buildings, 
many of historic or architec- 
tural interest, can be adapted, 
saved, "recycled" if you will, 
and economically put to new 
uses. Elsewhere old and new 
government buildings can be 
integrated into their surround- 
ing neighborhoods; ground 
floor space can be leased for 
restaurants, theaters, and 
shops. The publiccan patronize 
these businesses which, in 
turn, can help pay for the 
buildings. Presently some 
stumbling blocks must be sur- 
mounted, but the recommen- 

*Copies of; 1 1 Federal Architec- 
ture; A Framework for Debate; 
2) Federal Architecture; Multiple- 
use Facilities, and 3) Federal 
Architecture, Adaptive-use 
Facilities are available from the 
Architecture + Environmental 
Arts Program, National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, Washington, 
D C 20506 

dations hold high promise. 

Interestingly, the first multiple 
use building— since the 
Pentagon— IS being built right 
now by a quasi-government 
agency This is the new home 
of the Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board, an independent 
agency that does not have to 
conform as closely as the rest 
of us to GSA rules Unfortun- 
ately GSA does not presently 
have full authority to imple- 
ment multiple-use ideas. But a 
bill now pending in the 
Congress would clearly give it 
that authority and other 
agencies could then move 
ahead aswell. The bill has been 
approved by the Senate and is 
awaiting House action, I'm very 
hopeful that we will see House 
action soon so that we can 
incorporate the multiple-use 
factor into our buildings. 
In graphics, the second 
element of the Federal Design 
Improvement Program, 
progress has been dramatic. 
Thirty-four departments and 
agencies— one-half the total- 
are working to strengtinen 
visual communication through 
effective layout and design. 
The Endowment provides eval- 
uation teams that review an 
agency's total visual output- 
posters, logos, forms, publica- 
tions—and the teams recom- 
mend ways to make these 
materials more effective and 

When we first started the 
Graphics Improvement Pro- 

gram people said. Oh my 
heavens, you II never make it 
That s like striving to reach 
the moon " Well, guess whaf? 
You may not have realized it 
but last summer when the 
Russian-American space flight 
was launched, it carried 
NASA s new logo, the cap- 
stone of this agency s entire 
new graphics program! 

Great progress has been 
made at the Labor Depart- 
ment, the Internal Revenue 
Service, the Environmental 
Protection Agency, the Fed- 
eral Energy Administration, 
even the National Zoo Next 
month Labor Secretary Dun- 
lop will present the Vice-Pres- 
ident with the first compre- 
hensive graphics manual 
which has resulted from the 
Federal Graphics Improve- 
ment Program. 

I think one of the outstanding 
success stories of graphic 
improvement is the National 
Park Service. A very fine de- 
signer took its tremendous 
range of typefaces and publi- 
cations and put them into one 
format which is easier to read 
In addition the Park Service 
saved $340,000 in one year 
utilizing the new design. 

We might have a break- 
through in reading the words 
from the Congress of the 
United States The Secretary 
of the Senate, who is very 
interested in design, has just 
completed a pilot project to 
improve the readability of 

New Graphics for the National 
Zoo were designed by Wyman 
and Cannan, as part of the Fed- 
eral Graphics Improvement 



Senate publications The re- 
sults were enthusiastically 
received and led to the pos- 
sibility of redesigning all Con- 
gressional publications, in- 
cluding the Congressional 

The third part of the Federal 
Design Improvement Program 
depends on the Civil Service 
Commission and its ability 
to recruit and rate qualified 
design professionals in all 
disciplines for all government 
agencies. New procedures 
have been approved in re- 
sponse to the Civil Service 
Task Force Report. Excel- 
lence Attracts Excellence. 
From now on to enter federal 
service as a designer, the 
applicant must demonstrate 
his or her skills and be rated 

The fourth element of the 
Federal Design Improvement 
Program involves design edu- 
cation through publications 
like Federal Design Matters* 
and Design Assemblies, The 
purpose of the design educa- 
tion program is to promote 
understanding of the many 
ways that design can be an 
effective management tool. 

The message is simple: De- 
sign IS not a frill, it is basic to 
the performance of products 
and people A well-designed 
newsletter is better read than 
an unattractive one; it com- 
municates more effectively A 
well-designed building can be 
less expensive to maintain, to 
heat and to cool A well- 
planned office interior moti- 
vates people to take a greater 
interest in their work 

Thus far, there have been 
two Design Assemblies in 
Washington. DC. each at- 
tended by more than 800 
federal administrators and 
designers. Last year Colorado 
and Ohio held their own State 
Design Assemblies Alaska. 
Kentucky. Michigan. Tennes- 
see and Washington are about 
to do the same A number of 
federal agencies had their 
own intramural assemblies of 
similar kinds And today we 
have representatives of the 
15 Western States gathered 
for the first Federal Regional 
Design Assembly 

But why was Denver se- 
lected as the site for the first 
Regional Design Assembly? 
Because the design chal- 

lenges we all share through- 
out the nation are so clear in 
this region: the government 
owns 50 million acres in the 
West; it manages 2500 build- 
ings occupied by the largest 
number of civil servants out- 
side Washington. DC: it 
communicates with 36 million 
citizens here; and this region 
IS addressing environmental 
problems that are as challeng- 
ing as any m the nation Fur- 
thermore, the West has proven 
Its eagerness to move ahead 
in design matters Three states 
have held or are planning to 
hold their own assemblies. 
Oregon already has begun a 
program to improve state 
architecture modeled after 
the Federal Architecture 

So progress is indeed being 
made We hope after these 
two days, more progress will 
be made As civil servants and 
administrators, we are regain- 
ing our understanding of the 
importance of design to our 
government and our people. 

"Federal Design l^atters is 
available from the National 
Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, DC. 20506 

Keynote Address 

The Honorable 
Rogers C B Morton 

A better quality of life is a 
nebulous phrase, so nebulous 
that I think no two people 
interpret it the same way 
Consequently, it describes a 
commodity that is hard to deal 
with in wholesale terms. But 
it probably sums up as well as 
anything else what we are 
seeking in the things we build, 
or print, or design. 

The man-made environment 
is always superimposed on a 
greater natural environment, 
so the man-made environment 
is an intrusion. There must be 
a better mating between what 
we do here on earth with our 
drills and our air hammers, our 
earth movers, our arts and 
crafts and the setting that na- 
ture has put around us. We 
have a delicate job of balanc- 
ing what man does with what 
nature is, and this is a philos- 
ophy that we have to put 
together in our own spirits and 
in our own souls and in our 

own minds if we're really going 
to accomplish anything in 
design. To one extent or an- 
other, the difference between 
good and poor design will de- 
termine whether our intrusion 
upon nature exerts a benefi- 
cial impact. 

Whether we achieve balance 
and harmony or disruption 
will determine the quality of 
life. In the nostalgic craze that 
seems to have taken hold as 
we get close to our 200th 
birthday, many people seem 
to want to go back to the good 
old days before dirty industries 
and automobiles were pollut- 
ing the air. Well, you know 
there's no way to go back to 
the old days. 

So let us not think of design 
as a reversion but always as 
a move ahead. Let s not think 
of design as some way just 
to bridge a gap in what we 
have done on the right and 
done on the left. Let s think of 

design as some way of moving 
forward Its a reach for great- 
ness and once man stops 
reaching for greatness, the 
economic and political con- 
cepts on which civilizations 
are built will fall. In this coun- 
try, wherever I go I see that 
the desire for the reach for 
greatness has often been su- 
perimposed with the desire 
for the status quo, by the de- 
sire for security 
Altogether there has to be a 
sense of adventure in design 
or we immediately pour con- 
crete into the state of the art 
of our civilization and it hard- 
ens and when it hardens it 
begins to atrophy Design 
must be an adventure and it 
must move with man s creative 
spirit. It IS the difference be- 
tween boredom and excite- 
ment in little things. 

At the opening general session, 
Nancy Hanks shared the stage 
with Secretary of Commerce 
Rogers C B Morton m Houston 
Fine Art Center s Corkin Theater 





12 New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture: 
An Overview 

Bill N Lacy 

14 New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Arcfiitecture: 
Reports and Activities 

Lois Craig 

15 New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture; 
GSA Response and Current 

Frank J Matzke 

17 Social Scientist and 

Architect: The Collaborative 

John Zeisel, Moderator 
Robert Stiibley 
Louis E Gelwicks 

19 Architecture by Team 

William Wayne Caudill 

Bill N. Lacy, Director of the 
Architecture + Environmental 
Arts Program, National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, is currently 
serving as Executive Director 
of the Federal Study to revise 
and update the 1962 Guiding 
Principles for Federal Architec- 
ture An architect, he has been 
a faculty member at Oklahoma 
State University. Associate 
Chairman of the Department of 
Architecture. Rice University, 
and Dean of the School of 
Architecture. University of 

John Zeisel, Director. Architec- 
ture Research Office and Assist- 
ant Professor in the Sociology 
of Design. Harvard University 
Graduate School of Design, is 
also principal of Zeisel Research. 
Cambridge. Massachusetts 
Recently, he has served as a 
member of the AIA Urban De- 
sign Assistance Team studying 
options for urban transportation 
and life styles m Phoenix. 
Arizona, and as research director 
for the Massachusetts Advisory 
Council on Education s study to 
reduce school property damage 

William W. Caudill, Chairman of 
the Board. Caudill Rowlett 
Scott Inc . IS a nationally recog- 
nized proponent of the team 
concept of architecture His firm 
is well known for its designs of 
schools and educational and 
health facilities Selected Plan- 
ner of the Year by the Council 
of Educational Facilities m 
1970, Mr Caudill is a Fellow of 
the American Institute of 

Lois A. Craig, Staff Director of 
the Federal Architecture Project, 
has directed the research and 
editing for the ad hoc task force 
interim report entitled Federal 
Architecture. A Framework for 
Debate. She is presently pre- 
paring a visual history book on 
federal architecture Ms Craig 
was a consultant to the Task 
Force on Land-Use and Urban 
Growth sponsored by the Rocke- 
feller Brothers Fund and Pro- 
gram Associate, Housing and 
Urban Growth Division, National 
Urban Coalition 

Robert G. Shibley, an architect 
with the Office of the Chief of 
Engineers. Department of the 
Army, has been responsible for a 
wide range of architectural 
projects, including the develop- 
ment of design methods and 
research programs, the imple- 
mentation of a computer-aided 
design review system and fed- 
eral liaison activities related to 
architectural research respon- 

Frank J. Matzke, Associate 
Commissioner for Project Man- 
agement. Public Buildings 
Service, General Services 
Administration, joined GSA in 
1972 His former positions in 
GSA include Regional Admin- 
istrator for a six-state region 
headquartered m Chicago 
Illinois and Acting Assistant 
Commissioner for Construction 

Louis E. Gelwicks is President 
of Gerontological Planning Asso- 
ciates. Santa Monica. California 
and since 1969 has been a 
partner in Gelwicks and Walls 
and Associates. Los Angeles and 
San Francisco A Fellow of the 
American Institute of Architects. 
Mr Gelwicks was previously a 
principal m his own architectural 
firm From 1961-71. Mr Gel- 
wicks taught several courses m 
the area of environmental design 
at the University of Southern 
California. Los Angeles. 


Daniel. Mann. Johnson & 
Mendenhall s Titan I Launch 
Complex. LowryAir Force Base. 
Denver. Colorado 


A view upstream of the Bureau 
of Reclamation s Columbia 
Basin Project. Grand Coulee 
Dam Marcel Breuer Hamilton 
Smith and Thomas Hayes were 
consulting architects for the 
Third Powerplant and Forebay 
Dam. built in 1968 The inclined 
concrete beam carries a visitor s 


New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture: 
An Overview 

Bill N Lacy 

In a recent English article 
titled Who Cares About 
Architecture'' the following 
question was posed: If it is 
argued that architecture 
reflects society and that 
people must love a society in 
order to love its architecture 
and if the trouble today is 
that people do not love their 
society, does it follow that we 
have to wait until people 
create a society they can love 
before we can produce 
lovable architecture? 

For the past four years since 
I joined the Endownnent. we 
have been trying to create a 
lovable architecture or. as 
singer Joni Mitchell puts it. 
trying to stop them from 

paving over paradise and 
putting up a parking lot." In 
the eight year history of the 
program, we have awarded 
over 800 grants or roughly 
ten million dollars and these 
grants have been made m the 
fields of architecture, urban 
design, landscape architec- 
ture, industrial design and 
interior design 

But one of our most im- 
portant and ambitious projects 
has been the Federal Design 
Improvement Program which 
is directly responsible for this 
gathering today and the two 
which preceded it. It all 
started in 1972 when we 
finagled a Presidential direc- 
tive aimed at improving the 
quality of design in govern- 
ment Architecture is not 
often thought of as a means 
of communication but our 
buildings do reflect what we 
think of ourselves and they 
become a statement about our 
nation. We felt that this 
was an assignment worthy of 
our efforts and we've been 
pursuing it these last three 
years. We were asked to 
revise the Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture that 
were developed m 1 962 
Though they have a very high 
sounding name these first 
principles may have been 
prompted by as simple an 
incident as a motorcade down 
Pennsylvania Avenue when 
John F. Kennedy was 

The story goes that the sub- 
ject of how miserable Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue appeared to 
the august personages m the 
motorcade became a subject 
of discussion at a Cabinet 
meeting and an ad hoc com- 
mittee was formed, Arthur 
Goldberg, who was then the 
Secretary of Labor was asked 
to head this and not many 
people know that Arthur Gold- 
berg had a hand in the federal 
architecture guidelines 
Along with him was someone 
who played an equally 
prominent part, Patrick 
Moynihan, the former Am- 
bassador to India and now to 
the U, N 

It was a very simple docu- 
ment but not simple-minded 
The preamble to the study 
on Pennsylvania Avenue was 
in the mam, a one page state- 
ment and it's important. I 
think, just to hit the highlights 
of it to give you an idea of 
what this first set of guiding 
principles covered 

Among the suggestions 
made in this one page were 

Major emphasis should be 
placed on the choice of de- 
signs which embody the 
finest contemporary Ameri- 
can architectural thought. 

Where appropriate, fine 
art should be incorporated 
in the designs, with 
emphasis on the work of 
living American artists. 

Design must flow from the 
architectural profession to 
the government and not 
vice versa. 

The advice of distinguished 
architects ought to, as a 
rule, be sought prior to 
the award of important 
design contracts 

Special attention should 
be paid to the general 
ensemble of streets and 
public places of which 
federal buildings will form 
a part 
Now, none of us, in re- 
viewing these earlier ideas 
could quarrel with any of the 
guidelines They were a good 
set of rules to follow The 

only problem was that they 
were limited m their coverage 
and more importantly, they 
provided no means for im- 
plementation and as good as 
they were, there were a 
number of things ten years 
ago that could not have been 
anticipated and some critical 
considerations that have de- 
veloped in the intervening 

For the most part they dealt 
with the subject of aesthetics 
and we wish to add other 
dimensions to them. We want 
to talk about the social, 
psychological and behavioral 
implications of a set of guid- 
ing principles that would not 
only include aesthetics but 
would deal with the user s 
satisfaction, the real client 
instead of the client client 

We finally came up with a 
word that we think sums up all 
the things we are trying to 
talk about, and that word is 
accessibility. The kind of 
accessibility that casts the 
government in the role of a 
host, we feel is a more ap- 
propriate symbol of our time 
than one presenting the 
federal government as a 
stable and dignified body 

In the course of developing 
new guiding principles, we 
studied a number of issues 
We had a high-powered task 
force and government repre- 
sentatives from all the 
agencies that build. We spent 
two years deliberating be- 
cause Its not an easy task and 
we were determined that we 
were not going to come up 
with a cookbook of how to do 
good architecture. 

So we didn t set out. nor did 
the 1 962 group, to establish 
an official style Instead, we 
were trying to look at those 
things we felt could be 
changed, could be influenced 
to create a better architec- 
ture We knew that we couldn t 
improve the architectural 
talent in the country by any- 
thing we wrote, that we were 
going to get the best buildings 
by the best talent available 
and that s the most we could 
ever hope for. 


But we did deal with some of 
the procedural questions, 
some of the processes we 
thought were often over- 
looked not only in federal but 
non-federal architecture, and 
we talked about some of 
those things: Architectural 
review and evaluation boards: 
post-evaluation of design de- 
cisions: ways of assessing the 
value of amenities: establish- 
ing design review boards for 
federal agencies. We have no 
real lab for experimenting in 
architecture and it seemed to 
us the federal government 
offered the best opportunity 
for such a laboratory 

We talked about mixed uses, 
how to make federal buildings 
more lively rather than 
placing them in an area for 
the purpose of revitalizing a 
depressed part of the city and 
in fact, adding to that depres- 
sion. We talked about how we 
might get better people with- 
in the government so that 
they could exercise better 
judgment and select better 
people outside the govern- 

We talked about the flexi- 
bility of design that would 
allow for growth and change. 
We are now recycling build- 
ings that were built in a period 
when the programs were 
relatively simple and we find 
its not that difficult to make 
them usable once again, a 
hundred years later. We think 
that many modern buildings 
are built with programmatic 
restrictions that don't allow 
for the accommodation of 
growth and change. Any of 
you in governmental positions 
know that change and growth 
are things you can count on 
each year, and an architec- 
ture that won't permit that 
kind of flexibility is a limited 

Historic preservation and 
adaptive use were sweeping 
the country at the time we 
were looking at these guide- 
lines, so these also became 
important considerations, as 
did architect selection and 
design competition. 

Well, these were some of the 
things we grappled with and 
most of them found their way 

into 15 recommendations 
and three staff reports which, 
in turn, have prompted some 
significant legislation affecting 
federal architecture 

Ada Louise Huxtable ob- 
served in the New York Times 
a few years ago that a certain 
major federal agency build- 
ing program projected such 
an appalling image of the 
federal government that it 
could drive any loyal but 
sensitive citizen to defect. 
We believe the worst of that 
period IS over and that our 
chances of seeing genuinely 
distinguished federal archi- 
tecture haven t been better 
in decades. 

Lighthouses are among the 
countless anonymous structures, 
both useful and beautiful, that 
are part of the federal govern- 
ments enormous building 
program. At left, the Race Point 
lighthouse on Cap Cod and at 
right, the lighthouse on Cape 
Hatteras, North Carolina. 


New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture: 
Reports and Activities 

Lois Craig 

In addition to our staff of four. 
we have a task force of 1 5 
people who have a special 
interest in design working on 
the Federal Architecture 
Project. They include such 
people as architects O Neil 
Ford and Harry Weese, 
anthropologist Edward Hall. 
Dick Ravitch, a builder, and 
so on. Very important to our 
effort to improve federal 
architecture has been a group 
comprised of representatives 
from 20 federal agencies 
with major construction 

Our first task was to state 
what federal architecture is. In 
Washington, we all think we 
know what federal architecture 
IS. If you leave Washington, I 
would say the first image that 
springs to peoples minds 
would be the White House, the 
Capitol, or the local home town 
post office 

We decided we should be 
more methodical about a 
definition and remembered 
seeing an old report from the 
30s of the Public Works Ad- 
ministration that listed building 
types It began with abatoirs, 
and we were so enchanted 
with a list that began with 
abatoirs that we decided to 
make our own list and I had a 
researcher pour over the real 
property inventory and the 
appendicesof the U.S. Budget. 
After he'd come up with 1 68 
different building types. I let 
him stop. Our list began with 
aquariums and auditoriums 
and ended with youth centers 
and zoos. So the opportunity 
for design in the federal 
government is enormous. 

The U S government has 
worldwide property worth 83 
billion dollars, other projects 
like dams and fort facilities 
worth 39 billion It constructs 
about one billion dollars worth 
of new work each year: it pays 
an annual rental worldwide 
of 528 million 

The Department of the Inte- 
rior, according to Fortune 
magazine, shows greater 
profits than General Motors 
through timber rights, offshore 
oil leasing, etcetera To make 
this more vivid you could say. 

the domestic inventory in- 
cludes floor space equal to 
1 .250 Empire State Buildings: 
the land holdings are the 
equivalent of a third of the 
continental United States 

We should not forget the 
great amount of construction 
the federal government sup- 
ports but does not build. 
Standards and regulations 
follow our design dollars 
Federal dollars go into FHA. 
hospitals, schools, sewers, 
highways Everywhere your 
federal government is present 
designing the environment. 

There are also policies that 
have spatial impact One that 
comes to mind, air quality 
standards. Those standards 
could affect the shape of 
metropolitan areas. The task 
force concluded that the size, 
range, complexity of federal 
construction and the tangle- 
ment of related policies, 
regulations, people, required 
that they circulate a framework 
report. This framework was 
intended for debate. 

Since our first task force 
report, we've started trans- 
lating standards into archi- 
tectural reality. The first report 
had to do with multiple use I 
went to Canada to talk to offi- 
cials there about their mul- 
tiple use program, which is 
now nationwide for them in 
both new buildings and the 
conversion of old buildings. 

In our own country, it has 
been difficult to have mul- 
tiple use in federal buildings 
because of a lot of regulations. 
We thought that even without 
new legislation, the govern- 
ment could place publicly 
attractive services at ground- 
floor levels. Such things as 
the Government Printing 
Office book stores could be 
made an appealing storefront 
operation that could attract 
people to a building. 

The Public Cooperative Use 
Act of 1 975 IS concerned with 
adaptive use of existing 
buildings It passed the Senate 
this summer and is now before 
the House awaiting action. The 
bill does two things: It en- 
courages the government to 
consider adapting not only 

historically important build- 
ings but also architecturally 
interesting buildings, which 
might not qualify for the Na- 
tional Register, before they 
build new buildings: and the 
second part allows a wide 
range of community and com- 
mercial units on the ground 
floors of federal buildings if, 
and this is an important if, the 
community so desires it 

We are now in the process of 
doing a staff report on design 
competitions and awards 

We re also interested in look- 
ing at building management 
and its effect on the 
design and the reception of 
federal buildings The govern- 
ment-as-host approach would in- 
clude housekeeping, attitudes of 
employees in the lobby, how de- 
signers might assist managers to 
assist the users of the building 
to claim their space. Its our 
belief that if people are given 
the chance and some en- 
couragement that IS not 
patronizing, they will modify 
their own environment. 

Were also trying to give this 
framework for debate a historic 
dimension with a visual history 
of federal architecture. We re 
hoping it will be published late 
in 1 976. We are trying to 
cover everything from forts 
and lighthouses through 
federal office buildings, 
through land policies like the 
railroad policies of the 1 9th 
century and the FHA and hous- 
ing policies of our own time. 

We'd like to see demonstra- 
tions that we alone don t have 
the resources to mount, on 
such things as building man- 
agement, multiple use, 
adaptive use, competition, 
design awards and citizen par- 
ticipation. All the experiments 
that can be done will enlarge 
the public s awareness of 
what is possible. 


New Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture: 
GSA Response and Current 

Frank J Matzke 

Built in 1 858 as the tirst Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington. 
DCs Renwick Gallery was 
a Civil War hospital, a US. 
Courthouse, and finally it was 
reopened in 1971 , as part of the 
Smithsonian Institution, to house 
design exhibitions, crafts and 
decorative arts Designers for 
the building s restoration were 
John Carl Warnecke and Asso- 
ciates and Hugh Newell 
Jacobsen and Associates. 

The reason for promulgating 
the Guiding Principles for 
Federal Architecture in 1962 
and restating them some 10 
years later in afour part pro- 
gram of specific objectives is 
simply this: a quest for quality 
The Public Buildings Service 
concept of quality and design 
encompasses function, cost, 
serviceability and user satis- 
faction—a cycle of considera- 
tions that provides new design 
program data from user re- 
sponses, as well as post facto 
analysis of technical and 
budgetary performances 

Function: If afacility fails to 
meet functional requirements 
positive effort turns into 

Cost: Cost is reckoned not 
only in the expenditure of 
funds; we see time as a 
function of cost and time is 
money for government as 
much as it is for business. 
In an effort to capitalize on 
time, some government 
agencies, particularly the 
Public Buildings Service, 
have utilized a systems 
approach to the design and 
construction of new facilities 
and optimized the use of fast 
track and building systems 
through better management 
of the entire process. Fast 
track requires the overlapping 
of the design and construction 
phases of a project and allows 
independent and discrete 
portions of the construction 
process to proceed before 
complete development of 
design detail. 

Serviceability: Design is not 
limited to the presentation of 
a three-dimensional composi- 
tion fixed in time. Design for 
serviceability must anticipate 
and provide for compatibility 
with the surrounding environ- 
ment, adaptability to func- 
tional and physical modifica- 
tions and the ability of a 
building to live within a 
reasonable maintenance and 
operating budget 

User Satisfaction: Perhaps 
this is one of the most difficult 
considerations to assess 
because the government's 

clients tend to be abstracted 
and anonymous. Current 
interest among government 
agencies m developing user 
profiles and evaluating user 
responses will do much to 
overcome the inclination to 
avoid design responsibilities 
by perpetuating the myth of 

One of our current programs 
we've considered to be of the 
highest importance is that of 
energy conservation. We 
have issued two significant 
publications on energy con- 
servation design guidelines 
for new and existing build- 
ings. A new federal building 
incorporating many of these 
guidelines is now nearing 
completion as a demonstra- 
tion project in Manchester, 
New Hampshire. Concur- 
rently, a demonstration 
project for environmental 
conservation incorporating 
a sizeable solar collector has 
been designed and is now 
under construction in 
Saginaw, Michigan. 

A program area that has 
relatively little visibility but 
has considerable impact on 
the performance aspect of 
design is that of life safety 
systems, particularly in tall 
buildings The recently com- 
pleted Seattle Federal Office 
Building has become a model 
for high-rise fire safety and its 
features are being duplicated 
currently in both public and 
privately constructed office 

GSA IS mandated by specific 
legislation to prescribe 
standards and to otherwise 
insure that physically handi- 
capped persons have ready 
access to and use of federal 
facilities. We are currently 
engaged in the updating of 
performance standards to 
cover auditoriums, dining 
facilities, libraries, court- 
rooms, display areas and 
other special facilities not 
included in present standards 
They will also address a wider 
range of disabilities than the 
present standards which 
concentrate primarily on the 

We work very closely with 
the National Endowment for 
the Arts on a program we 
call Art in Architecture. By 
congressional mandate we 
provide up to one-half of one 
percent of new construction 
funds for the express purpose 
of commissioning works of 
art to be integrated into our 
building structures, their 
landscaping and their 

GSA has also been 
responsive to those ground 
swells in design that may 
soon break with considerable 
impact upon our federal 
facilities They include the 
maintenance and preserva- 
tion of historic structures, the 
adaptive use of existing 
structures, historic or other- 
wise, and multiple use or 
mixed occupancy in federal 


(from top) 

One hundred years of changing 
attitudes are demonstrated m 
the design of this series of 
federal hallways: Federal Court 
of Appeals Building, San 
Francisco, 1870; National Park 
Service office building, Santa Fe. 
New Mexico, 1939, San Francisco 
Federal Office Building corridor 
renewal, 1962. Los Angeles 
Federal Office Building, Charles 
Luckman. architect, 1972. 

"What a very little fact 
sometimes betrays the 
national character 

Andrew J Downing, 1840 


Social Scientist and 
Architect: The Collaborative 

John Zeisel, Moderator 

John Zeisel. director of the 
Architecture Research Office 
of Harvard's Graduate School 
of Design. Robert Shibley. 
architect with the Army 
Corps of Engineers and Louis 
Gelwlcks, president of 
Gerontological Planning 
Associates, presented their 
analyses of the users' view of 
architecture— social and 
psychological reactions to 
architectural spaces. 

John Zelsel's office is devel- 
oping information about 
visitor and worker responses 
to buildings, l-le showed a 
number of slides to point out 
the elements in a building 
that evoke visitor response 
including: entryways, lobbies, 
hallways, signing and light- 
ing and discussed various 
factors that make these areas 
responsive to visitor needs. 
He also analyzed the needs 
of people working in these 
same buildings. 

We ve come a long way in 
understanding the elements 
of a work station, the kinds of 
things that people do. how 
they make themselves at 
home, and we ve started to 
translate that into open land- 
scaped cubicles with 
advanced technological furni- 
ture and hardware and that s 
a big step forward But, we ve 
also got a long way to go in 
really resolving how these 
things work and it's a matter 
of management as well as 
design We've got to begin to 
design environments that 
accommodate needs for 
privacy and social interaction. 

We ve talked about the 
barrier-free environment. 
Usually, what you see is pic- 
tures of wheelchairs not being 
able to go up stairs or wheel- 
chairs not being able to go 
through doors. My earliest 
recollection of learning about 
barrier-free environment was 

a drawing of someone with 
crutches trying to stand at 
a urinal or get into a toilet 
stall. It s overwhelming, the 
way we really lock out the 
handicapped It's an issue 
that research has found out 
a lot about and can find out 
more about in specific 

There is an attitude that says. 

You re spending public 
monies, it has to look bad 
We've got people trapped in 
public housing, we ve got 
people trapped in public 
buildings, we don t have to 
worry about them I think we 
have to change our priorities 
to create buildings that are 
more humane, less hostile, 
more welcoming and more 

Robert Shibley 

The social sciences can offer 
significant assistance to those 
who control design and man- 
agement by giving valid in- 
formation on human and social 
requirements as well as user- 
manager values. 

Questions of accountability— 
for whom or to whom and for 
what— are useful questions. 
Accountability is really a 
learning resource that can 
help us be much more re- 
sponsive to users, to man- 
agers, to the political and 
organizational concerns that 
we're involved in daily and to 
the design professionals Be- 
yond our collective oppor- 
tunity to be accountable there 
is opportunity to actually im- 
prove the social health of the 
people in the organizations we 
serve by the very way we do 

I n the process of problem 
seeking or programming, m 
digging to find out informa- 
tion that is design relevant, 
we also learn a great deal more 
about the organization we're 
with. The process can help 
management and working 

level personnel communicate, 
A good design process can 
give managers an ear to the 

One method we might use to 
improve the state-of-the-art 
in architectural design is to 
record what we learn in the 
process of design, to seed that 
back into the same project, 
and to record what we learn in 
the activity of design in a very 
rigorous way. 

We all have some kind of 
guidance manuals, but they 
are really not sufficient as 
learning resources. Most of 
them are made to make chal- 
lenge very difficult in the intro- 
duction of new evidence and 
therefore revision is not 
genuinely encouraged. Not 
because it doesn t say in the 
back of the book, send me 
your recommendations for 
change, but because of the 
content of the book itself, and 
what it says and what it does 
not say about how the infor- 
mation got to be what it is. 

I suspect that the organiza- 
tionsthatare represented here 
have a similar problem with 

guidance, in order to unfreeze 
this guidance, to develop 
some more responsive design 
procedures and to take advan- 
tage of the opportunities we're 
talking about, certain cate- 
gories of information have to 
be present in all guidance. 

We ve got to give the people 
who use our guidance docu- 
ments information about what 
problems we're trying to ad- 
dress with those documents. 
We have to describe the conte) 
the documents are appropriate 
for use in. We have to get on 
with the business of giving 
them the image that allows 
challenge and. we ve got to 
give them the supportive 
evidence on the relative im- 
portance of the problem, the 
accuracy of the context des- 
cription and the appropriate- 
ness of the solution or the 
tentative solution image. 


Louis E Gelwicks 

As an architect involved in a 
reasonable annount of re- 
search, programming and 
planning. I ve come to the con- 
clusion that the architect has 
a minor role in the overall vol- 
ume of decisions affecting 
design. Most design decisions 
are made on a typewriter, not 
on a drafting board For exam- 
ple, to what extent do we 
acknowledge privacy and per- 
mit its use m buildings? The 
answer affects design consid- 
erably and I think we should 
really look on this and similar 
questions as design decisions 

If we re going to do our job. 
if we re going to interrelate a 
varietyof sociological findings, 
research and concerns of 
people, we ve got to have 
good facts 

In a recent meeting of the 
Environmental Design Re- 
search Association, a paper 
titled The Design of Compre- 
hensive Information Systems 
for Design was given. It read 

in part. if general informa- 
tion systems to facilitate en- 
vironmental design are to 
supersede the growing collec- 
tion of specialized programs 
and services, a better appre- 
ciation of the problems and 
possibilities of such systems 
IS needed A lack of theory to 
guide the design of compre- 
hensive systems, the prolif- 
eration of more or less 
specialized and arbitrary high 
level languages, unintegrated 
data, inadequate capacity for 
describing relationships, the 
complexities of large-scale 
operating systems and the 
magnitude of the information 
problems posed by environ- 
mental design, have conspired 
to discourage, confound and 
diffuse effort 

The jargon of the social sci- 
entists and the semi-literacy 
among architects has been 
holding design back for about 
20 years 

In an experiment in housing 
for the elderly, about 35 older 

people were asked to develop 
what they felt would be an 
ideal apartment. We were 
trying in this experiment to get 
at the reasons people do 
things, what their priorities 
are. what their trade-offs are 

The result of the program is 
four plans studio apartments 
with alcoves and all the furni- 
ture plotted You suddenly 
realize that people don t use 
space the way architects de- 
sign It We ve got to work with 
the behaviorist. use some of 
his input, and much of the re- 
search of the past 10 years. 

Mr. Gelwicks went on to 
show photographs of a num- 
ber of environments that he 
feels are socially positive. He 
concluded with the thought 
that a good public space, one 
that IS attractive, comfortable 
and usable, is liable to be filled 
with people. In other words. 
we can learn best about de- 
sign from the people who 
use It. 

Caudill Rowlett Scotts Student 
Housing. State University 
College at Brockport, New York 
was designed and constructed 
in 1 8 months by the team 
method Completed m 1972. 
this complex was funded by the 
Department of Housing and 
Urban Development and the 
Dormitory Authority of New 
York State. 


Architecture by Team 

William Wayne Caudill 

The notion that an architect 
designs a building is a popular 
misconception People who 
should know better, like 
architectural writers, critics 
and historians, can only con- 
ceive of one person ever 
designing a building. A wealth 
of ignorance about how a 
building is designed prevails 
within and without the 

The reasons for this are: 
writers know very little about 
the design process, or they 
can t explain a team, or 
they belive that the 
Renaissance man still exists. 
The fact is: One person can t 
design a building Another: 
The prima donna is dead The 
new genius is the team 

Architecture? What's thaf 
Ask ten architects, get ten 
different answers. 

Now let me see if I can clarify 
what we think architecture is 
and how buildings are 
designed these days, based 
on the experience of the CRS 
(Caudill Rowlett Scott) team 
with a 28-year track record of 
literally hundreds of buildings. 
Not only do we design buildings 
by team, but we evaluate their 
performance by team— with 
the users on the team. User 
involvement may be the key 
to successful buildings. But 
user involvement cant 
substitute for great designers 
But architecture is too im- 
portant to be trusted to one 
person who wants to express 
his urge for creativity. 

One man (or woman) cant 
hack it alone Like doctors, 
there are scores of different 
kinds of architects. Design- 
ing buildings is a complex 
operation. The CRS-designed 
concert hall in Houston re- 
quired 13 3/4 man-years, 
involving 61 different people 
getting it out in 1 4 months. 
The Manhattan College re- 
quired 30 man-years and the 
assistance of scores of dif- 
ferent specialists to produce 
It in 12 months CRS is now 
working on a project that will 
take 300 man-years to design 
with hundreds of specialists 

Only a few years ago. 
architectural profs were 
telling their students: Take 
your time Mies van der Rohe 
took ten years to design a 
house. The more time spent 
on design, the better it will 
be. If it took ten years to 
design that house today, its 
cost would more than double 
the original budget. In this 
day, simply to keep up with 
inflation requires uncommon 
speed during the design 
and construction process, 
and only a team can do it 
But its not only that. Owners 
are demanding shorter design 
and construction time. They 
don t want to wait. That's 
why building systems and 
systems buildings— fast track- 
ing and construction manage- 
ment and the like— are 
coming in so strongly And 
when you get into systems 
buildings, more people are 
involved in the design/build 
team of teams. 
The essence is this: 

If architecture ' is the goal, 
then what is "architecture? " 
We re back to the muddle. 
What meaning should we use? 
Our most recent notions of 
what those of us who practice 
by team think architecture is: 
Architecture is a personal, 
enjoyable, necessary ex- 
perience. Man perceives 
and appreciates form and 
space from three distinctly 
different but interrelated 
attitudes: of the physical 
being, of the emotional 
being, and of the intellec- 
tual being When architec- 
ture does happen to this 
person, an aura seems to 
emanate from form and 
space that evokes a re- 
sponse by fulfilling his 
physical, emotional and 
intellectual needs. 
The goal is to design build- 
ings which possess architec- 
ture. If architecture is 
"personal expression, " a team 
would not only be unneces- 
sary, it would get m the way 

But architecture being "a 
personal experience, " with 
the user being the final judge 
of whether a building 
possesses architecture, a 
team is needed— with users 
on the team The team s job 
is to design the forms and 
spaces in such a way that the 
building and the user fall in 
love with each other 

So one notion is this: If the 
users are to have a building 
that possesses architecture 
(by our definition), it s better 
to design the building by team 

1 n CRS we operate on two 
theories relating to team 
action: The Theory of Product 
and the Theon/ of Process. 

The Theory of Product- 
product meaning anything 
from a group of buildings 
to a single building to a part 
of a building. We state the 
Product Theory this way: 
architecture has a better 
chance of happening if func- 
tion, form, economy and time 
of the product are considered 
as one 

The Theory of Process goes 
something like this: 
Since every architectural 
task requires three kinds of 
thinking/doing relating to 
management, design and 
technology, the design task 
can best be done by a team 
led by a troika— a manager, 
a designer and a technologist. 
The Process theory evolved 
over a 1 5-year span of prac- 
tice. It s sound. Ourdesigners 
at first were reluctant to share 
honors awards with managers 
and technologists. Of course, 
they were delighted to share 
responsibilities and liabilities. 
Today the most competent 
designers in CRS are pleased 
with this trilateral leadership 
arrangement They no longer 
need to be orima donnas, and 
the managers and technolo- 
gists are no longer second- 
class citizens 




Opening Remarks 

M Elliott Carroll 

22 Design Awareness 

William Pulgram 

23 Open Office Case Study: 
Federal Aviation 
Seattle Regional Office 

Dennis Green Moderator 
C B Walk, Jr 
Sam Sloan 
Walter Kleeman. Jr 

26 Dialogue: Interior Design 

Office of the Comptroller 
of the Currency 
Washington, D.C. 
W.A Howland 
Jeffrey H Miller 

M. Elliott Carroll, Executive 
Assistant to the Architect of the 
Capitol, was formerly a partner 
m the architectural firm of 
Vincent G Kling and Partners, 
Philadelphia. Pa From 1960-70 
he served on the executive 
staff of the American Institute of 
Architects. Washington. DC 
While at the AIA. Mr Carroll 
served as Deputy Executive Vice 
President and administered the 
publication of the 6th edition of 
Architectural Graphic Standards. 

William L. Pulgram is President 
of Associated Space Design 
Inc . Atlanta. Georgia In 1958 
he was appointed Associate and 
Chief Interior Designer at Finch 
Alexander Barnes Rothschild & 
Pascal, Atlanta, joining Asso- 
ciated Space Design as Execu- 
tive Vice President m 1963 Mr 
Pulgram is a recipient of a first 
prize for architecture design 
from L Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

C. B. Walk, Jr.. Regional Admin- 
istrator, Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA). is respon- 
sible for the agency s activities 
in Idaho. Oregon and Washing- 
ton Since joining the FAA in 
1960 he has been Chief. Aircraft 
Management Division. Flight 
Standards Service. Washington. 
DC; Chief. Flight Standards 
Division. New York. Manager. 
FAA New York Area Office, and 
Deputy Director of the Aero- 
nautical Center. Oklahoma City 

Sam Sloan, President. People 
Space Architecture Company, 
has completed numerous archi- 
tectural and environmental 
design projects including the 
interior open office plan for the 
Federal Aviation Adminis- 
tration s Seattle regional head- 
quarters Prior to forming his own 
firm, he completed various 
projects related to urban plan- 
ning and institutional design, 
including multi-media lecture 
and research laboratory facilities 

W. A. Howland, Jr. is Deputy 

Comptroller of the Currency for 
Operations Planning. Since 
joining the Comptrollers Office 
in 1968. Mr Howland has served 
as attorney-advisor for antitrust 
litigation. Administrative Assist- 
ant to the Comptroller and Dep- 
uty Comptroller for Administra- 
tion Previously he served in the 
Office of the Judge Advocate 
General of the Air Force for 16 

Jeffrey H. Miller is a partner in 
the interior design firm Hunter/ 
Miller & Associates. Alexandria. 
Virginia From 1966-69 he 
served as the Environmental 
Design Coordination Officer for 
the Chesapeake Division of the 
Naval Facilities Engineering 
Command During this time. Mr 
Miller was responsible for many 
innovative projects and was 
awarded the Navy Achievement 
Medal by the Secretary of the 
Navy for his design work 

Dennis Green, Director of the 
Western States Arts Founda- 
tion s Design Program, was 
formerly Director of Interior 
Architecture and Design Pro- 
gramming with James Sudler 
Associates. Denver Colorado 
Previously he had been a prin- 
cipal in his own firm in Seattle. 
Washington His former positions 
include responsibility for design 
research with General Services 
Administration and teaching at 
the College of Human Ecology. 
University of Maryland 

Walter Kleeman, Jr., Associate 
Professor of Interior Design at 
Western Kentucky University, is 
also Co-chairman Environmental 
Research and Development 
Council of the American Society 
of Interior Designers Dr Klee- 
man serves as ergonomic con- 
sultant to architect Sam Sloan 
for the design analysis of the 
Federal Aviation Administra- 
tion s Northwest Regional Office. 
Seattle. Washington, and the 
Southwest Regional Office. Los 
Angeles. California 

One of several GSA feasibility 
studies of air-supported struc- 
tures as environments for 
federal offices and public spaces 


r^' » 


Opening Remarks 

M. Elliott Carroll 

Excellent office environ- 
ments contribute to efficiency 
of communication, employee 
morale and productivity and 
enhance management coor- 
dination. This afternoon, we re 
going to be talking about some 
case histories that illustrate 
these points The Federal 
Aviation Administration of- 
fices in Seattle and the offices 
of the Comptroller of the 
Currency in Washington, D C 

Mr. Carroll introduced the 
search for interior design ex- 
cellence by showing examples. 
in the Capitol, of untenable 
office conditions. 

Before we see the good 
ones. I m going to give you 
one of the saddest case 
histories I have discovered 

since I arrived at the Capitol a 
year and a half ago The in- 
terior of the Capitol building 
was designed by a physician 
Dr William Thornton Because 
he didn t know much about 
building design and construc- 
tion, he selected the second 
runner-up in the competition 
to do that work There are two 
Senate Office Buildings: the 
old Russell Senate Office 
Building and the Dirksen 
Senate Office Building oc- 
cupied m 1961 In the Russell 
Senate Office Building allo- 
cation of office space was 
based on the size of the con- 
stituency the Senator repre- 
sented The Senators from 
Delaware and Nevada, for 
example, got four or five 

rooms The Senators from 
California and New York 
got seven or eight 

The average square footage 
per person in these offices is 
67 I don t think there s a 
junior high school anywhere 
in the country that has a 
secretary s office of less than 
1 50 square feet Senate clerks 
have the same problem Be- 
cause of these blatantly in- 
efficient situations the 
Architect of the Capitol has 
obtained an appropriation to 
conduct an experiment in the 
next year and a half m the 
Senate offices to apply the 
lessons of interior office plan- 
ning that you II be hearing 
about this afternoon to that 
long neglected situation 

Design Awareness 

William Pulgram 

We will address ourselves 
here to the problems of the 
administrator, the person 
responsible for the opera- 
tional efficiency of an agency, 
a department or maybe just 
one small segment within an 
agency When we ask the 
administrator what problems 
he or she is having in achiev- 
ing an efficient operation, the 
concerns voiced usually have 
to do with people: their rela- 
tionships to each other and to 
their supervisor, the type of 
work they do, their personal 
problems such as anxieties, 
tensions, personal satisfac- 
tion, opportunities, salaries 
Way down in the list of major 
concerns the administrator 
mentions the physical work 

All the concerns enumer- 
ated are usually couched in 
terms of psychological needs 
of people or in terms of how 
many desks, chairs, pieces of 
paper and square feet of floor 
space a group needs to per- 
form its assigned task What 
is rarely discussed is the qual- 
ity of the physical work space 
We want to illustrate that 
there is a critical relationship 
in the interaction of people 
and physical space We hope 
to show that appropriate phys- 
ical environment can contri- 
bute to the solution of the 
people-related problems and 

concerns of the administrator 
In the following enumeration 
of administrator s complaints, 
I do not mean to imply that 
all federal government of- 
fices are ineffectively de- 
signed There are many very 
appropriate installations, but 
more often than not we hear 
the following: 

1 Limited Agency Input 

2 No Personnel Involvement 

3 Poor Space Utilization 

4 Obsolete Furniture and 

5 Inadequate Building 

6 Insufficient Maintenance 

7 Too much Red Tape and 

How can you take care of 
your needs'?" 

1 Maintenance 

Keeping existing spaces 
and facilities in good repair 
IS the simplest form of prob- 
lem solving: the task is to 
preserve the original inten- 
tion of the design 

2 User Input 

If there is going to be a 
realistic approach to provide 
a humane working or living 
environment for people, there 
has to be a comprehensive 

analysis of what the needs of 
the organization are and the 
individuals within it 

3 Design Know-How 

What we are talking about is 
the use of design profes- 

4 Hardware 

Earlier concepts of office 
planning included full height 
walls, doors and the conven- 
tional equipment of desk and 
files The uses for certain 
types of equipment have 
been reevaluated The in- 
flexible full height wall gives 
way to the movable panel that 
might provide a vertical work 
and storage surface in addi- 
tion to visual and audial 

5 Building Systems 
Architectural technology is 

being utilized to provide a 
container appropriate to the 
changing patterns of human 
organization Long span struc- 
tures allow greater bay spac- 
ing and even column free 
space Technical and elec- 
trical systems have been 
designed to allow for reloca- 
tion and change Open space 
planning has provided the 
potential for more economic 
and effective distribution of 
light and air conditioning. 


Open Office Case Study: 
Federal Aviation 
Seattle Regional Office 

Dennis Green, Moderator 

Mr. Green's remarks centered 
around participation of the 
user in the design of the envi- 
ronment. The Federal Aviation 
Administration Seattle office 
Is an excellent example of the 
vi/ay a design team works. 

Users often don t under- 
stand what is happening to 
them in the design process 
because they are not in- 
volved. Involving them re- 
duces their anxiety and helps 
them understand how to 
adapt and how to enjoy the 
end product Design participa- 
tion produces physical design 
more related to the balance 
between desired values and 

actual values. Participation 
creates a setting in which a 
total range of value prefer- 
ences can be uncovered and 
in which a point of view can 
be a positive force Participa- 
tion provides a more dem- 
ocratic environment and 
more emphasis on individual 
responsibility. Participation 
dispels the idea that nobody 
cares about how / feel and 
therefore I'm not worth very 

If people are allowed to se- 
lect the things that feel best to 
them, they will pick a color that 
they like, and they re going to 

find that the things they choose 
are better suited to their needs 
than they would be if someone 
else selected them. 

Participation provides a log- 
ical framework in which inter- 
disciplinary actions can com- 
pliment each other rather 
than contend with each other. 
In this case, our ideas are 
open, we exchange ideas and 
we all become better profes- 
sionals, better facilitators at 
our jobs. 

C B, Walk, Jr 

Very briefly, I'd like to talk 
about how i got into this 
project. Back in the late 60s, 
the President decided that he 
would like to create federal 
regions in various locations 
across the country. 

One of the first things I did in 
looking around for a head- 
quarters structure was look at 
the new Federal Building in 
Seattle. It is a beautiful 
building but, I was happy to 
learn, it was already over- 
subscribed Why? Because I 
didn't want to have a regional 
headquarters, particularly in- 
volving aviation, located in the 
city center. Access to our 
customers would be difficult 
and our employees would 
have tremendous problems in 
finding parking, and we try to 
be an employee-oriented 
organization. For example, 
inside parking costs $45 a 
month. For a married man or 
woman with children, that 
buys a pretty good insurance 

Now, I had always taken the 
position that if I had anything 
to do with the construction of 
a regional headquarters build- 
ing, I wanted it on an airport 
and I wanted it so arranged 
that the people we serve, our 
customers, could land their air- 
craft and park right in front of 
the building and come in, do 
their business and be on their 
way. I also wanted to have 
good public transportation 

from the city center par- 
ticularly, so that our minority 
and ourelderlyemployees 
would have good public trans- 
portation access to this 

After the building design 
was completed, we started 
thinking about the interior 
design. I have always felt that 
people spend more time on 
their job than any one thing 
they do in their life except 
sleep, and I think manage- 
ment has a great responsibility 
to create an environment 
that will make their working 
conditions pleasant and 

About the only thing I was 
certain of was I wanted to 
have our employees involved 
to the maximum extent possi- 
ble in the design of their 
building. I also wanted to 
have experts design the in- 
terior. We organized various 
employee committees and 
looked at all types of designs. 
What came out of these com- 
mittees and our discussions 
was the concept of open 
landscape planning. Since I 
was impressed with what I had 
observed GSA accomplish in 
the Seattle Federal Office's 
interior design, we con- 
tracted with them for design 
services, and they in turn 
sub-contracted with People 
Space Architecture Company. 

Now, the first meeting that I 
had with the GSA representa- 
tives left me walking around in 

circles and, being a 57-year- 
old conservative, I wasn't 
at all impressed with those 
bearded, long-haired young 
men who came to my office. 
But it wasn't long until I 
realized that I was dealing with 
very talented people. 

One thing I mentioned earlier 
was employee involvement. 
We had a lot of it in our whole 
operation. We tried to get our 
employees involved not only 
in our routine business, but in 
our decision making. I did not 
abdicate my responsibility, but 
I did try to get as much input 
as possible from my employees. 

The building cost $2.5 
million, we spent $166,000 
on new furniture, $19,000 on 
equipment, $3800 on refur- 
bishing some old furnishings. 
The base rental is $305,645, 
we have janitorial service, 
with $73,800 for utilities, which 
equals out to $5.42 per square 
foot. We felt this was a very 
economical square footage 

On July first of this past 
year when GSA's standard 
level user charge went into 
effect and they started ad- 
ministering our lease, the 
cost went up to $9 42 per 
square foot 



Federal offices are often clut- 
tered and lacking in essential 
concern for the people who 
use them 


The office of the FAAs North- 
west Regional Headquarters, 
Seattle, Washington, designed 
by People Space Architecture 
Company of Spokane, is charac- 
teristic of the new use of open 
planning in federal buildings 


Sam Sloan 

Our work started with a 
week long design team visit 
to FAA's existing environ- 
ment—talking, looking, 
discussing, planning 

The methods of investiga- 
tion were the questionnaire, 
interviews and observation 
We held sessions with each 
individual and in groups of 
20 to 25 over a period of two 
weeks. We explained what 
work environments are and 
asked them to tell us what 
they thought their environ- 
ments were all about. 

Consequently, as we worked 
over the next three years 
with these same people they 
could understand the ques- 
tions that we were asking and 
they could intelligently an- 
swer them 

We interviewed every single 
person working in the FAA 
regional offices. 285 of them, 
and charted our interview 
analysis on a pre-designed 
data sheet Our comprehen- 
sive questionnaire regarding 
personal preferences, indi- 
vidual idiosyncrasies and 
group requirements was 
given to each individual 

The answers were compiled 
and computer synthesized to 
develop a graphic representa- 
tion of individual and group 
needs. This is a very interes- 
ting matrix. It does two things: 

it identifies when an individual 
does not need a certain item that 
everybody else in his work group 
does need; and, it also identifies 
when an individual needs some- 
thing that the rest of the group 
does not need. 

We set up a mock environ- 
ment in a hangar at Boeing 
Field to reflect the eventual 
space design. We turned it 
into a furniture store in es- 
sence. Each and every person 
in the FAA came in on a sched- 
uled basis to shop around and 
talk to our designers and se- 
lect what he wanted 

We gave them the advice 
that we could, particularly 
when they asked for it, as to 
how they should orient their 
particular work station to 
meet their needs. Each indi- 
vidual made all of his own 
color choices, selected his 
own equipment, the amount 
of it and the type An individ- 
ual decision data sheet was 
recorded for every individual 
now numbering 320 due to a 
rather dynamic growth of the 
agency during our efforts. 
Group relationships, territory 
and travel compromise were 
developed based on research 
data and the experience we 
had accumulated in our ob- 
servations of the system. 

Finally, we used what might 
look like an archaic tool to 

put this all together We 
actually drew up each indi- 
vidual's requirements to 
scale, put them on a sheet 
and glued them up with rub- 
ber cement. It took a lot of 
time but the eventual product 
was a drawing When the 
drawing was sent to Washing- 
ton, D. C. for evaluation by 
the main headquarters of the 
FAA. people who had worked 
in the Seattle office recog- 
nized people by the chairs, 
desks, layouts, and they rec- 
ognized groups by their 
orientation, without the labels 

It should be mentioned at 
this point that the aesthetic 
that we created was a hetero- 
geneous aesthetic solution, 
something that had many and 
varying different color com- 
binations and contents. That 
heterogeneity created what 
the people themselves 
thought of as a residential 
value environment as op- 
posed to a homogeneous 
solution that involves a very 
carefully controlled color 
scheme designed by a 

Walter Kleeman, Jr. 

My view of the FAA project 
is an ergonomic one, the im- 
minent interface between 
people and equipment, be- 
tween the user and his envi- 
ronment. The consequences 
of what happens in this inter- 
face are usually very low key 
The backache is slow in com- 
ing along, it doesn't hurt very 
much at first and it doesn't 
cripple anybody for months 
or perhaps years. 

The cause of the backache 
may be relatively simple: a 
chair with low lumbar sup- 
port, or a chair that is not ad- 
justable in a range wide 
enough to accommodate the 
people who use it. Or, if the 
seat height won't go low 

enough, legs dangle, pres- 
sure IS exerted on the blood 
vessels in the bottom of the 
upper leg and legs may in- 
crease in size causing vari- 
cose veins 

As you might suspect, there 
IS plenty of literature pub- 
lished by the U. S. govern- 
ment about the design of 
chairs, but unfortunately, the 
available chairs on the market 
don't reflect that information 

We made sure that the tops 
of the work surfaces in Seat- 
tle were not glaring by speci- 
fying matte or dull surfaces 
that reflect between 30 and 
50 percent of the light that 
hits them If the top color is 
too dark, the line of contrast 

between the white paper and 
the top of the desk will be 
very strong, so strong that 
your eyes are attracted to the 
contrast line instead of to the 
paper you're supposed to be 
reading or writing upon. This 
strong contrast line becomes 
a distraction in your work. 
What happens, then, if the 
work surface top is too lighf?" 
The contrast line tends to 
completely disappear. So you 
need to specify the reflec- 
tants so that the ergonomic 
limits of 30-50 percent reflec- 
tants could prevent any one 
of these problems. 


Dialogue: Interior Design 


Office of the Comptroller 

of thie Currency 

Wasfiington, D.C. 

W A, Howland 

Jeffrey H. Miller 

This case study demonstrates 
how an administrator and a 
designer can join together to 
create a fine, workable result. 
Mr. Howland: Th\s agency was 
created in 1 863 The old facil- 
ity consisted of long, dirty 
corridors, cluttered work 
stations, a totally inadequate 
design to handle the appro- 
priate tasks. 

The new facility of the 
Comptroller of the Currency 
in Washington is 150.000 
square feet. A period of 1 8 
months was spent on design 
and actual construction. 

The new office at 490 
L Enfant Plaza is rather 
unique in that it s a mixed 
use facility. It is leased by 
the Comptroller. The building 
has a hotel on the top three 
floors and there are 8 floors 
of office space, two are occu- 
pied by the Comptroller. 
When this project began I 
didn't know about office furni- 
ture systems and all of these 
things that were being rec- 
ommended to me I was open- 
minded, but at the same time, 
I had to be very pragmatic 
and I wanted to talk to the 
actual users. I took copious 
notes and have them available 
here for our present use. 

Mr. Miller: We 6 usually dis- 
cuss the merits of one system 
versus the other. While we 
were doing this, we were also 
discussing matrixes we were 
applying to the organization, 
who needed to be near whom 

Mr. Howland: We learned so 
much more rapidly, I think, 
than we could have otherwise, 
because we were in the 
designer s arena Jeff Miller 
was there with his staff, 
research materials and files— 
everything we needed to 
answer questions. 

Mr. Miller: We considered 
true life cycle costing and 
that led to certain design de- 
cisions. We looked upon 
design as a problem solving 
arrangement. Movable walls 
and metal partitions were 
chosen because we knew that 

we could rearrange offices 
over a weekend, not interrupt- 
ing the work 

Mr. Howland: Our design 
process was carried out in four 
separate phases: conception, 
design plan, design implemen- 
tation and evaluation. 

Mr. Miller: Everything except 
the Knoll office system was 
bought from the Federal 
Supply Service— chairs, 
carpeting, accessories This 
just shows that the federal 
supply system isn t necessarily 
a disaster, but you do have to 
know how to use it creatively. 

The lighting fixtures we 
used were not in the building 
standard. We ended up using 
nothing that was offered in 
the building standard because 
we found everything else 
more cost-effective We se- 
lected a light fixture that in 
fact cut energy consumption 
and that represented an 
annual saving of $18,000 in 
the electric bill. 

One of the other design 
problems we were faced 
with was the ever-present 
one of who sits at the perim- 
eter with a window. You can 
imagine, with a 60,000 square 
foot floor, the ratio of windows 
per square foot of usable 
space is rather low and we 
decided that there should be 
equality of treatment for 
everybody. We tried to de- 
velop a scheme in which we 
borrowed lights for interior 
offices. We also provided 
very wide spaces between 
enclosed offices so the light 
would come streaming in and 
be shared We opened up the 
fire stairs to make them com- 
municating stairs, instead of 
locking them. Finally we de- 
signed a brochure that out- 
lined all information about the 
new facility: the neighbor- 
hood, security, how to get 
there by bus, parking and 
then, very clearly defined, the 
role that was being played by 
the agency in developing the 
space and, generally what 
that space was going to 

Mr. Howland: We have about 
307 people employees) now 
in Washington Managers 
told me their people were 
happier, that they even 
dressed better' We have 
been able to look at areas 
that have been used for a 
year now and they are still 
sparkling People are obvi- 
ously proud and are taking 
care of their spaces 

The last thing III talk about 
in the design solution is the 
central conference facility As 
most administrators know, 
everyone needs a conference 
room, so they say. And in our 
survey, we got the same result. 
After evaluating the true needs 
we created two official confer- 
ence rooms. Both of them were 
designed so they did not need 
any audio-visual speaker 
systems. One has no doors, is 
glass-enclosed, and right next 
to the library It s frequently 
used and is scheduled 

We did a study on relative 
costs for developing our 
space We have a lease op- 
tion extending through a total 
of 30 years The cost of this 
development comes out at 
less than one half of one 
percent of what we re going 
to spend on those people 
during that period. So as far 
as we re concerned in our 
evaluation, it is very much 
worth it. We announced a 
graphics program a couple 
of months ago and we re 
beginning to implement it. 
We find much less resistance 
to that program than initially 
confronted the office design 
program I believe it is be- 
cause our people have 
learned what good design is 
all about. 


Four exhibitions were shown at 
the Assembly including The 
Design Necessity, an exhibit 
prepared for the First Federal 
Design Assembly The exhibition 
illustrates design performance 
criteria in graphics, architecture, 
interiors and environmental 



30 Overview of the Federal 
Graphics Program 

Jerome H Perlmutter 

30 The New Federal Graphics 
Labor Department Case 

John W Leslie 
John Massey 

33 Symbol Signs: Department 
of Transportation s Signage 

William R Myers 
Thomas H Geismar 

Jerome H. Perlmutter is Coor- 
dinator of Federal Graphics. 
National Endowment for the 
Arts Mr Perlmutter was Chief 
of Publishing for the State 
Department when he was de- 
tailed to the Endowment m 1973 
to implement the Federal 
Graphics Program In 1970, at 
the request of the White House, 
he conducted a comprehensive 
study on the impact of visual 
communication and the aesthet- 
ics of graphics m the federal 




William R. Myers is Deputy 
Director of the Office of 
Facilitation. Department of 
Transportation, Before joining 
the Department, he was respon- 
sible for a wide variety of facilita- 
tion activities in the Department 
of Commerce, first with the Mari- 
time Administration and later 
with the Bureau of International 
Commerce. Prior to government 
service. Mr Myers served as 
Special Assistant to the Presi- 
dent and Vice President of Fruit 
Growers Express Company 

John W. Leslie has served as 
Director of the Department of 
Labor s Office of Information. 
Publications and Reports since 
1959 In his current position, Mr 
Leslie directs all public informa- 
tion activities of the Labor De- 
partment and advises the Secre- 
tary of Labor on public informa- 
tion aspects of Departmental 
programs Mr Leslie has served 
as press officer for the Bureau of 
Apprenticeship and Assistant 
Director of Information 

Thomas H. Geismar is a partner 
in the graphic design firm 
Chermayeff and Geismar Asso- 
ciates and also a partner m the 
architectural design firm Cam- 
bridge Seven Associates He is 
especially well known for design- 
ing numerous corporate trade- 
marks and symbols, and major 
institutional exhibitions. Mr 
Geismar s work has been exhi- 
bited throughout the United 
States and Europe, as well as 
in Russia. Japan and South 

John Massey is founder and 
Director of the Center for Ad- 
vanced Research and Design 
and Director of Corporate and 
Marketing Communication for 
Container Corporation of Amer- 
ica He recently designed the 
Department of Labor s new 
graphics program Over the last 
fifteen years. Mr Massey s 
designs have received wide 
recognition m this country and 
abroad In 1967 he was named 
Art Director of the Year by the 
National Society of Art Directors 

These images are from This is 
the Federal Government, a 
six-screen slide'sound pre- 
sentation depicting a histor- 
ical survey of federal graphics, 
produced by Intermedia Systems 





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Overview of the Federal 
Graphics Program 

Jerome H Perlmutter 

Agency administrators ex- 
pressed interest in the 
Federal Design Improvement 
Program through a number of 

Question: How do we select a 
design consultant? 

Perlmutter: If Westinghouse 
and IBM want a design con- 
sultant, they survey the field 
and pick one and that s it But 
the federal governnnent is a 
different story, and Im sure 
maybe the states are the same 
way. We, in the Endowment, 
have a register of over 250 
designers of various special- 
ties Now lets say department 
X wants to go into the program. 
We will be glad to provide 
them with the names of three 
or four expert firms who can 
satisfy or solve a particular 
problem. When an agency is 
ready to send out bids, they 
are obliged to also advertise 
nationally in the Commerce 
Business Daily, published by 
the Department of Commerce 

Now this will bring in firms 
who may not know about 
the requirement So what 
happens then is they send out 
the bids to these three or four 
firms, others come in based 
upon the advertisement, and 
the agency, in a selection 
process, may have about a 
dozen to choose from. A tech- 
nical committee is appointed 
within an agency: they review 
everything, and finally come 
up with a selection. But let me 
make one thing clear. In the 
federal government, the job 
doesn t go to the lowest 
bidder. It goes to the most 
qualified firm that the agency 
perceives can do the job 

Question: Who evaluates 
agency graphics'^ 

Perlmutter: That is a beautiful 
part of the program. When I 
joined the Endowment, three 
years ago, I knew I would 
need outside assistance for 
this area. A lot of designers 
and communicators asked me 

what they could do to help the 
government And I said. Well, 
you can serve on a panel And 
they said that they would be 
very happy to serve and do 
anything to support the pro- 
gram Let me mention some of 
the people we have on the 
panel We have the head of 
design of Cooper Union, 
Pratt Institute and Rhode 
Island School of Design 
We have the head of design of 
IBM, Exxon, Westinghouse, 
CBS. We have a mix between the 
academic and the commercial, 
we have heads of design 
studios, and we also have 
about a dozen government 
members. We have 50 panel- 
ists in all, and draw upon five 
or six for any given panel 

The New Federal Graphics 
Labor Department Case 

John W Leslie 

In 1 957. the Department of 
Labor's budget was cut. This 
gave me the opportunity as 
then Deputy Director of Infor- 
mation, to consolidate all 
graphics production as an 
economy measure The results 
of this consolidation provided 
one of the essential elements 
that I believe is needed for a 
successful visual communica- 
tion program A well staffed 
centralized graphic production 
unit, large enough to support 
the various graphic talent 
necessary for a viable program, 
IS essential 

The last ingredient, and the 
most vital one in running an 
effective graphics program is 
executive support. 

We had organization, a good 
staff and executive support, 
yet our graphics program was 
lacking It was no surprise 
when the panel of experts set 
up by the Arts Endowment to 
review our product suggested 
that we have an outside expert 
take a look at what we were 
doing and make recommenda- 
tions for improvement The 
panel found that while there 

were numerous outstanding 
examples of graphic product, 
there was no common stand- 
ard or system and each piece 
of graphics work was created 
independent of all others In 
other words, we invented the 
wheel every time a new 
graphics product was created. 
If the new design program 
accomplishes nothing else, it 
provides a ready answer to all 
the would be designers we 
have in the program areas of 
the department. After the panel 
of the Endowment took a look 
at our material and pointed out 
its shortcomings to us, we put 
out invitations to bid. We 
selected as the contractor the 
Center for Advanced Research 
and Design, located in Chicago, 
to review the department s 
work and to come up with some 
solutions to our problems 
Though not all department 
managers and members of the 
graphics staff are sold on the 
new system, it is a vast im- 
provement over our former 
way of doing things, and I 
would point out also that the 
program has received the full 

support of past and present. 
Secretaries. There have been 
substantial savings of time and 
money in the design and 
printing of material, which 
enables us to obtain more 
product at the same cost. And 
the product itself is better. The 
Public Printer estimates that 
our new system of standardiza- 
tion of publication sizes, papers 
and inks would save about 
15 percent in printing costs. 
We have experienced a similar 
reduction of approximately 15 
percent in the time spent on 
the design development of 
graphic materials When you 
consider the Labor Depart- 
ment spends over one and one- 
half million dollars a year in all 
types of visual design and 
another five and one-half to 
SIX million dollars a year on 
printing, the magnitude of the 
savings in the new system is 
clear It has enabled us to get 
more product for our design 
per printing dollar 


U.S. Department of Labor 



Labor Offices 

in the United States 

and Canada 




John Massey s graphics hand- 
book for the Department of 
Labor contains guidelines for 
communicating in many differ- 
ent ways The Departments 
new mark and its traditional 
seal are used in a number of 
ways; a flexible exhibit system is 
shown in one of its many 
possible configurations: and 
sample publication grids are an 
important part of this exemplary 
design guide 






JS^ 4300 4385 
^^ Stairwell S2 


John Massey 

Our assignment from the 
Department of Labor was to 
evaluate the graphic aspects 
of the department s commun- 
ication program, and to 
recommend procedures by 
which graphics could help to 
more effectively facilitate the 
department s overall com- 
munication objective. Our 
first task was to prepare a 
written program including a 
statement of objectives, a 
schedule of tasks to be per- 
formed, a time schedule, and 
a cost schedule The program 
of procedure was organized 
in five chronological steps or 
phases; 1 ) The briefing- 
principals within the depart- 
ment described the depart- 
ment s purpose within govern- 
mental structure, the depart- 
ment s overall objective with 
specific attention to the 
function of information com- 
munication performed in 
achieving these overall 
objectives; the organization 
of the information communi- 
cation staff within the 
department and its various 
agencies, and the pragmatics 
of current procedures regard- 
ing the planning, creation, and 
production of printed and 
related communication 
material 2) Data collection — 
we collected a cross section 
of the department's printed 
and related material produced 
in the previous two years, plus 
research reports and studies 
previously undertaken regard- 
ing the departments graphic 
or communication program 
3) Analysis— we were able to 
determine if the graphic con- 
tent and visual character of 
the department s material 
effectively supported the 
department's objectives 
delineated in phase 1 The 
disparity between the depart- 
ment s reality and purpose 
and its visual impression was 
documented and this disparity 
was reviewed by principles 
within the department, 4) De- 
sign function— the purpose 
was to develop graphic 
solutions which would bring 
the visual impression of the 
department closer to the 

department s current reality 

Now the reality of today s 
Department of Labor centers 
around the function of enforc- 
ing statutes designed to 
advance the public interest 
by promoting the welfare of 
wage earners of the United 
States, improving their work- 
ing conditions and advancing 
their opportunities for 
profitable employment In 
order to fulfill its charge, the 
department is organized into a 
series of offices which 
function to administer specific 
department programs. The 
administrative offices which 
administer programs with high 
visibility in this regard are the 
Manpower Administration, 
Labor Management Services 
Administration, Employment 
Standards Administration. 
Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration, and 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
The prime objective was a 
development of a compre- 
hensive graphic system for 
use by the department totally. 
Now, in addition to organiz- 
ing the proposed graphic 
system, consideration was 
also given to providing the 
department with uniformity of 
identification, a standard of 
quality and a more systematic 
and economic template for 
publication design In a closer 
relationship between graphic 
design as a means and pro- 
gram development as an end. 
the proposed graphic system 
would become an effective 
tool in assisting the depart- 
ment to achieve its program 
directives Now, a viable de- 
sign solution must clearly and 
strongly support this informa- 
tion dissemination. The 
content of each printed piece 
must be immediately legible 
and understandable. The 
piece must be recognizable as 
having emanated from the 
United States Department of 
Labor The inherent character 
of the design itself must com- 
municate that the content of 
the piece is important, up to 
date, alive and vital. 

A Department of Labor 
communication design 

element 'or logo) was devel- 
oped to appear on department 
communication pieces m 
combination with the title. 
With consistent use this 
element will instantly com- 
municate that this particular 
piece IS from the Department 
of Labor A unifying element 
running through all the publi- 
cations of the department. 
Its agencies, and bureaus, this 
design element does not 
replace the official depart- 
ment seal 

The fifth phase of the pro- 
gram was validation At this 
point we worked closely with 
the Government Printing 
Office to establish standards 
for sizes typography, grid 
systems, paper specifications 
and color Our objective was 
to arrive at perhaps no more 
than four to six sizes for 
printed material, two to four 
type faces, standard colors, 
grids and paper Tremendous 
economy could be realized 
with the adoption of these 
standards and yet they impose 
no limitation on the creativity 
of the departmentsdesigners. 
editors and information 
officers In fact, such stand- 
ards would allow the staff 
more time to concentrate on 
the creative aspects of their 
publications because the me- 
chanics were predetermined. 

After the concept was 
validated by applying it to 
select upcoming projects, 
the final phase was implemen- 
tation. At this point, a compre- 
hensive design standards 
manual was developed and 
produced and today this 
manual is beginning to func- 
tion as an integral part of the 
department s overall 
communications operation. 


Symbol Signs: Department 
of Transportation's Signage 

William R. Myers 

The Department of Transpor- 
tation s symbol signs program 
is intended to help the average 
traveler and even more exten- 
sively the average pedestrian, 
find the way to and through 
transport terminals and other 
large public buildings The 
need is for signs that are clear. 
uniform, and easy to compre- 
hend This means, above all. 
signs that surmount the lan- 
guage barrier. With the growth 
of international travel, .many 
visitors find themselves in 
strange, confusing surround- 
ings not knowing the country s 
language and uncertain of 
where to go or how to obtain 
help. But this is not all With 
the growth in population and 
increasing contacts between 
federal, state, and municipal 
governments and the citizens 
they serve, clear and compre- 
hensible signs are needed in 
every important public build- 
ing. The solution is symbol 
signs, symbols that place a 
heavy premium on design 

The proliferation of diverse, 
uncoordinated and often con- 
fusing symbol systems was 
the major influence on our de- 
cision to develop a symbol 
system that could be adopted 
for government use on a 
national basis. The average 
pedestrian could not be ex- 
pected to recognize and react 
properly to such a bewildering 
variety of symbols An effort 
to standardize was necessary 

From the very beginning the 
Department of Transportation 
sensed that for any program to 
be productive, it should have 
four main elements: 1 ) consul- 
tation with a representative 
group of advisors; 2] engage- 
ment in the program of the 
broadest possible range of 
professional experience and 
skills in the fields of graphic 
arts and industrial design; 
3] design and testing in ac- 
cordance with professional 
criteria and techniques; 
4) submission of the resulting 
symbols to the recognized 
standards-making organization 

in the United States, the Amer- 
ican National Standards Insti- 
tute, and for ultimate submis- 
sion to the International Orga- 
nization for Standardization. 

First, to begin the consulta- 
tive process we held a series 
of exploratory meetings over 
a period of almost three years 
To these meetings we invited 
experts from the federal gov- 
ernment, from the transporta- 
tion industry, and from fields 
of graphic arts and industrial 
design. We drew from their 
expert knowledge a wide 
range of ideas and opinions 
about the merits and draw- 
backs of existing sign systems 
and how we could go about 
developing a sound and work- 
able system. To this end we 
formed the Advisory Commit- 
tee on Transportation Related 
Signs and Symbols to furnish 
advice, guidance and over- 

We wanted the broadest pos- 
sible spectrum of professional 
advice, experience and skill 
in the field of graphic arts that 
could be found in this country. 
To obtain it we went to the 
American Institute of Graphic 
Arts and took the unique step 
of entering into a contract with 
AIGA for the first phase of our 

The General Services Admin- 
istration has designated ten 
installations in the United 
States that will cooperate with 
us in the testing procedure. 
Dulles International Airport 
has agreed to be a showcase 
for our symbols It is installing 
them and will assist in field 
testing during peak traffic 
hours. At least four major 
bicentennial committees, 
those for Boston. New York. 
Philadelphia, and Washington, 
are using the symbols at their 
various sites and events and 
at related transportation 

The object always has been 
to develop a comprehensive 
system of transportation re- 
lated passenger and pedes- 
trian oriented symbol signs. 
The basic group of 34 is the 

vital beginning. To assure a 
well rounded system, however, 
between 20 and 30 additional 
symbols will be needed. Work 
is to go forward on these sym- 
bols simultaneously with the 
development of the testing 
criteria and methods The 
additional symbols ultimately 
will be subjected to the same 
testing and evaluation and 
modification as the basic 

When testing and evaluation 
are completed, the system will 
be presented to the Interna- 
tional Organization for Stand- 
ardization. I'm inclined to 
think that their acceptance as 
an American standard is the 
most important single action 
that could be taken to guaran- 
tee wise voluntary use of 
these symbol signs. 

The federal government is in 
the best position to act in sup- 
port of uniformity and stand- 
ardization. This fact, even 
when taken alone, argues for 
active federal leadership. 


Public Services 



Currency Exchange 

First Aid 

Lost and Found 
Baggage Lockers 
Toilets, Men 

Toilets, Women 

Hotel Information 


Ground Transportation 
Rail Transportation 

Air Transportation 


Water Transportation 








Car Rental 
Coffee Sfiop 




Processing Activities 

Ticket Purchase 
Baggage Check-in 
Baggage Claim 



No Smoking 
No Parking 

No Entry 



Thomas H Geismar 

The Department of Transporta- 
tion contracted with the Ameri- 
can Institute of Graphic Arts 
for the design of standard 
symbol signs to help pedestrians 
find their way through public 
buildings The symbols shown 
here are the result of that study, 
and are now being tested in 
selected sites 

The AIGA (American Institute 
of Graphic Arts), which was 
founded in 1915, is probably 
the closest thing we have to 
a national graphic design 
organization. To my knowledge, 
the symbols project represents 
one of the first times that the 
government has contracted 
directly with a national design 
organization for creative serv- 
ices. And it seems to me that 
while it certainly doesn't guaran- 
tee better results, there are ad- 
vantages to both entities from 
such an arrangement. For the 
government, it lends a certain 
amount of validity to the rec- 
ommendations, and that s un- 
doubtedly useful to the gov- 
ernment in implementing the 
program For the design so- 
ciety, the association adds a 
certain raison d'etre to its 
existence and, in this particu- 
lar project, allowed normally 
competing professionals to 
work together on a common 

There were already so many 
symbol systems throughout 
the world that we didn t 
feel we could justify drawing 
up yet another new group with 
a distinctive logo. It seemed 
more reasonable to review all 
the designs in existence, to 
select those concepts that 
seemed most effective and 
then to redraw the particular 
designs as was needed in 
order to produce a system 
with graphic unity. Now that s 
a somewhat unusual approach 
for designers to take. In addi- 
tion all designers disliked the 
idea of design by committee 
But the circumstances again 
precluded the AIGA from 
selecting any one member or 
any one firm to undertake the 
project on its behalf. AIGA is 
made up of practicing profes- 
sionals and educators and 
has a small administrative staff 
so it would have to go to its 
membership to perform crea- 
tive services in a project like 
this. Therefore, a committee 
was selected. The committee 
consisted of Seymour Chwast, 
Rudolf de Harak, John Lees, 
Massimo Vignelli and myself 

as Chairman. The latter four 
of us are all designers and we 
all have considerable exper- 
ience in developing symbols 
and developing signage sys- 
tems. Seymour Chwast, an 
outstanding illustrator, was 
chosen because we felt that 
the drawing or the depicting 
of figures and objects was a 
very important part of our task. 

This sounds like a lot of 
pastry chefs to make a pie, 
but actually our idea was that 
we would decide what the pie 
was going to be and then we'd 
hire another pastry chef to 
actually make the pie and we 
would taste it and be the 
judges of it. In addition, we 
hired a young designer hus- 
band-wife team. Don and 
Karen Moyer, to act as coor- 
dinators of the project and to 
do the research that was 

The first task was to gather 
together examples, manuals 
and research from around the 
world, and to organize the 
material into comparable for- 
mats so each could be proper- 
ly evaluated Eliminating theo- 
retical or experimental sys- 
tems we compiled documen- 
tation on 24 symbol systems 
in actual use in various parts 
of the world. They ranged 
from international systems, 
such as the I ACO group or 
the International Union of 
Railways to national standards 
as those for the British, Austra- 
lian, Canadian. German air- 
port authorities, to local 
facilities, such as Seattle- 
Tacoma, and the various 
worlds fairs and the Olympic 
Games of recent times. 

All symbols, from every 
system, were reduced to the 
same size, approximately one 
inch square, and organized in 
a fixed sequence At the same 
time the Department of Trans- 
portation task force devel- 
oped a listing of the most im- 
portant message areas that 
were to be symbolized These 
were grouped into categories 
We then organized all the 
existing symbolsinto the same 
individual message areas 

We decided that the symbol 
concepts should be evaluated 

in two different ways. First, 
by the committee members 
individually and then in group 
discussion. Each committee 
member was given a ballot for 
each message area. Using the 
inventory pages as a guide 
each of us privately rated 
every individual symbol in the 
collection. Using a scale of 1 
to 5, each symbol was rated 
on its semantic, syntactic, and 
pragmatic dimension or in 
plain English, is the meaning 
clear, does it work as part of a 
system, isthedrawing legible? 

We also prepared a verbal 
analysis and recommendations 
for each message area. This 
was then used as a brief to be 
followed by Cook and Janowski 
Associates, who were the de- 
signers hired by the commit- 
tee to actually draw or design 
the symbols based on our rec- 
ommendations. For the most 
part we felt that extreme ab- 
straction and entirely literal 
symbols were inappropriate 
for our task. Instead we 
searched for the simplest pos- 
sible image that would still be 
recognizable, trying to bridge 
the gap somehow between 
oversimplification and literal 

In the introduction to the 
final report we stated three 
very strongly felt convictions 
about the use of symbol signs: 
1 ) the effectiveness of symbol 
signs IS limited to certain 
simple messages. Its very 
difficult to symbolize a com- 
plex process; 2) it is more 
harmful to oversign than to 
undersign; and 3) symbols will 
be useless at a facility unless 
they are incorporated as part 
of a total sign system. 



38 Opening Remarks 

Raymond L Freeman 

38 Aesthetics in Environmental 

Marilyn Duffey-Armstrong 

39 Post Construction Evaluation 
of Design Projects 

Ervin H Zube 

40 Public Participation in 
Design Planning. Golden 
Gate National Recreation 
Area, San Francisco. 

William Whalen, Moderator 
Eldon Beck 
Frank C Boerger 
Ron Treabess 

Raymond L. Freeman, Assistant 

Director for Development. 
National Park Service, has been 
with the Service since the mid- 
1940s directing a wide range of 
programs In 1956 he was instru- 
mental in developing the 
Service s Mission 66 Program 
—a ten year plan for the Na- 
tional Parks Mr Freeman was 
President of the American 
Society of Landscape Architects 
from 1971-1973 

William J. Whalen, General 
Superintendent. Golden Gate 
National Recreation Area, 
loined the National Park Service 
m 1965 as a psychologist in the 
Job Corps Civilian Conservation 
Center program m the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park 
Since then, he has served as a 
management official at Catoctm 
Mountain Park and worked in 
the Training and Personnel 
Divisions, Washington, D C. 

Marilyn Duffey-Armstrong, 

Operations Analyst Engineering 
Systems Division. Stanford 
Research Institute, is best known 
for her expertise in environ- 
mental impact analysis and 
aesthetic assessment Her report 
entitled Aesthetics m Environ- 
mental Planning, 1973. resulted 
from a state-of-the-art study 
prepared for the Environmental 
Protection Agency 

Ervin H. Zube is Director. Insti- 
tute for Man and Environment, 
and professor in the Department 
of Landscape Architecture and 
Regional Planning, University of 
Massachusetts He has served 
as a consultant to numerous 
state and federal government 
agencies, including the Army 
Corps of Engineers, the Depart- 
ment of the Interior and the 
Department of Housing and 
Urban Development 

Eldon Beck, principal m the firm 
of Royston Hanamoto, Beck & 
Abey, has been engaged in the 
practice of landscape architec- 
ture for sixteen years. His firm 
has participated m many major 
land planning, urban renewal and 
recreational projects throughout 
the country Currently, Mr Beck 
IS principal in charge of the 
Golden Gate National Recreation 
Area iSouth Unit) 

Frank C. Boerger is Chairman of 
the 15 member Citizens Ad- 
visory Commission for the 
Golden Gate National Recrea- 
tion Area, appointed by the 
Secretary of the Interior A 
professional engineer and 
principal with Madrone Asso- 
ciates, he has served as 
coordinator for the Contra Costa 
County Wastewater Manage- 
ment Studies to define solutions 
for municipal and industrial 
wastewater treatment 

Ron Treabess, a landscape archi- 
tect, joined the National Park 
Service in 1965 Since then he 
has completed various projects 
for the Park Service offices in 
San Francisco. New York City 
and Washington, D C During 
this time Mr Treabess has par- 
ticipated in various master land 
planning programs including the 
Gateway National Recreational 
Area in New York City 

Rocky Mountain National Park s 
alpine visitor center 


Opening Remarks 

Raymond L Freeman 

There is hardly a social, 
economic or environmental 
issue before this country that 
IS not somehow deeply and 
directly bound up with ques- 
tions of land use and with 
questions of how and where 
we organize our activities 
in space 

The federal government ad- 
ministers and manages about 
one-third of the nation's land, 
and approximately 44 percent 
of the land in the 1 5 states 
represented here is federally 
controlled. Now, this amount 
of federal involvement be- 
comes larger when those 
areas affected by federal 
grant programs— housing, 
education, medicine, flood 
control, agriculture, open 
space, recreation— are all 
added to this. It is in the West 
that many decisions will be 
made and actions taken that 
will have an effect on land- 
scape and environmental 

People who have lived in the 
West for years and who have 
enjoyed the wide-open spaces, 
the clean air, wildlife and other 
amenities are also touched by 
the way these lands are used 
While the environment of 
people IS primarily man-made, 
the quality of existence relies 
heavily upon how we deal with 
the renewable resources of 

While there can be no com- 
pletely natural environment 
inhabited by people, com- 
pletely artificial environments 
are equally unlikely Environ- 
mental planning provides a 
rational relationship among 
population characteristics and 
distribution and the quality 
of the several identifiable en- 
vironments that should be 
protected or enhanced 

We are aware of the problems 
and need to focus on the 
process that contributes to 
problem solving and well- 
designed living spaces. Plan- 
ning and design have become 
extensive and complicated 
processes. In fact, it some- 
times appears that the process 
is the only real action we take. 
Our traditional end products, 
such as plans and the actual 
facilities, are developed over 
a very long period of time. 

The planning process begins 
with an objective or problem 
identification stage and prog- 
resses through data gathering, 
alternative development and 
assessment, plan formulation, 
action or project development 
stages and finally, an evalua- 
tion of both the process and 
the products. 

Inherent today in any 
processes undertaken by the 
government is the provision 
for public participation, in 
order for a decision making 

process to be complete, mem- 
bers of the public must be 
involved from the early objec- 
tive stage to the evaluation of 
completed projects Precise 
times and methods used to 
gain public participation, of 
course, must be tailored to 
individual situations 

Aesthetics is one factor of 
environmental quality upon 
which we need to focus more 
of our attention Not nearly 
enough has been done to 
quantify aesthetics. If one 
looks at environmental impact 
indices, it is obvious that air, 
water and land use planning 
factors are quantified to a 
much higher resolution than 

Evaluation of completed 
projects is another major item 
which has not received enough 
effort or emphasis. We must 
be able to determine why 
certain facilities are aesthe- 
tically and environmentally 
pleasing, meet management 
objectives and user needs and 
why others do not Only by 
systematically evaluating 
projects and feeding this infor- 
mation back into the process 
can we hope to improve 
design solutions. Improved 
design solutions are less 
costly to construct, maintain 
and manage The cost of good 
design is a legitimate cost 
of doing the people's business. 

Aesthetics in Environmental 

Marilyn Duffey-Armstrong 

In trying to define aesthetics 
in an operational way, the 
major thing to look at in west- 
ern culture is the gradual 
change in criteria We no 
longer have uniform standards 
but we have individual values 
to deal with. 

Aesthetics in the dictionary 
IS defined as a branch of phi- 
losophy dealing with the nature 
of the beautiful and with judg- 
ments concerning beauty 
Beauty is defined as a quality 
that gives pleasure to the 
senses or pleasurably exults 
the mind or spirit. I believe 
that beauty is a verdict, a term 
used to express a personal 
reaction and not amenable to 
measurement Aesthetics. 

however, need not be con- 
sidered merely a branch of 
classical philosophy It can 
be considered a body of knowl- 
edge in its own right. 
What isit about our 
senses, about our state of well- 
being, that allows us to per- 
ceive things in a certain way? 
Man has basic physiological 
needs that are sensory. We 
have visual needs, we have 
auditory needs, gustatory, etc. 
We also have certain thresh- 
olds. Now. the thresholds have 
been established in terms of 
health, but they haven't been 
established in terms of 
aesthetic needs 

We also have social and psy- 
chological needs that are very 
much related to aesthetic per- 
ception. Social needs can be 
summarized probably in the 
best way by saying that we 
have certain kinds of values 
that are attuned to the era that 
we are growing up in. to cul- 
tural and social pressures or 
cultural and social desire. So 
we have social needs and we 
also have psychological needs 
that are related to aesthetic 

In combination with the aes- 
thetic variables of the human 
being, there also are aesthetic 
variables in the physical en- 
vironment and these are the 


objects that relate to our per- 
ceptions in terms of environ- 
mental variables. We have air. 
water, vegetation, habitat, 
light and noise. 

We also have variables in 
terms of land use that relate 
to space. Then we have 
design characteristics which 
are components of the land 
use variables and these are 
the characteristic variables 
that are always listed in aes- 
thetic impact assessments: 
color, texture, scale, pattern. 
There are natural and man- 
made components and they 
all have design characteristics 
which must be considered. 
Well, if we put these together 
and try to determine what 
aesthetic impacts are, we 
have the existing environ- 
ment and we have a proposed 

project. We superimpose that 
project on that site and deter- 
mine what kinds of changes 
will take place from the 
project on that particular site. 
We identify how that site 
serves the individuals in that 
community. What are the inter- 
actions now that have aes- 
thetic importance? We deter- 
mine whether or not those 
aesthetic needs are affected 
by the changes in the site and 
these are the aesthetic im- 
pacts. The needs are either 
infringed upon or fulfilled. 

We do not live in a world of 
unlimited resources. In terms 
of aesthetics, we don't have 
much longer to start looking at 
what our needs are m terms 
of our perceptions. We don t 
just have needs that are visual 
needs. Its no longer useful to 

just count trees and deter- 
mine whether or not the color 
is satisfactory. We perceive 
through all of our senses at 
the same time. We need to 
understand how our percep- 
tions work and what the bal- 
ances are. what some of the 
tolerance levels are for dif- 
ferent individuals. We need to 
use the information provided 
to us by psychologists and 
sociologists in understanding 
what our cultural and social 
needs are in terms of 

Post Construction Evaluation 
of Design Projects 

Ervin H. Zube 

Id like to try to answer three 
questions in my comments: 
1) what do we mean when 
we're talking about post- con- 
struction evaluation?: 2) why 
should we worry about post- 
construction evaluation, what s 
in it for us?: and 3) assuming 
you go along with me and I ve 
convinced you that its a use- 
ful thing and there's something 
in it for you, how do you go 
about doing it? How can one 
carry out an evaluation of a 
project after it's been 

What do we mean by post- 
construction evaluation? Not 
too long ago there was a study 
of the profession of landscape 
architecture, and one of the 
consultants to that study was 
William H. Whyte He com- 
mented on the failure of 
designers to observe the con- 
sequences of their actions and 
to systematically learn from 
past experience. 

Post-construction evaluation 
then is an attempt to redress 
these failures. The task force 
report on post-construction 
evaluation defined that activity 
as an appraisal of the efficacy 
of a design setting to satisfy 
and support explicit and im- 
plicit human needs and values. 

The process were using in a 
National Park Service study 

draws on this task force report 
and identifiesfour components 
of a post-construction evalua- 
tion process: the users, the 
thing that we're evaluating, the 
environmental context and the 
design activity. 

Who are the people using the 
facility? Are they visitors, resi- 
dents, employees? What are 
their perceptions of the en- 
vironment? What are the spa- 
tial and temporal variations 
and their patterns of use? 
What are their levels of satis- 

The place, the building, 
the open space, whatever it is 
we're trying to evaluate that 
has been designed and built, 
what functions are accommo- 
dated? What are the relation- 
ships between functions, 
materials, spatial allocations, 
features and structural ele- 
ments and what are the quali- 
ties such as sound, light and 
temperature, some of the is- 
sues we were just discussing a 
few minutes ago and in refer- 
ence to that setting, what are 
the supportive management 
and maintenance programs? 

What surrounds the project 
both in a social and physical 
environmental sense? What's 
the susceptibility of the proj- 
ect itself to external impacts 
from the surrounding area and/ 

or what s the probability of that 
project creating impacts on 
the surrounding environment? 

What was the initial program 
of the project? What con- 
straints exist in terms of site 
selection, budget, codes, 
regulations? Who made the 
decisions, who were the key 
actors in this activity and how 
much of the project was pre- 
determined before the de- 
signer was involved and what 
were the designer's assump- 
tions as to the patterns of use 
and users values? 

Why have post-construction 

1 ) Evaluation feeds back to 
the programming phase of the 
next interaction. 

2) Information on different 
kinds of environmental set- 
tings and user responses al- 
lows us to better understand 
changes over time— why 
doesn t a building or park 
work as well 1 5 years after 
construction as it did 5 years 

3} We need data which helps 
us make informed predictions 
as to social and aesthetic 
impacts from a range of con- 
struction projects. 

4) To open up another line of 
communication with clients 
and users. 


Public Participation in 

Design Planning: Golden 

Gate National Recreation 

Area, San Francisco, 


William Whalen, Moderator 

Eldon Beck 

Frank C. Boerger 

Ron Treabess 

Public participation in the 
design process is again seen 
as critical to the success of 
this recreation area study. 
Ron Treabess: We re now in 
the second phase of the three 
phase process of our plan to 
develop a total Golden Gate 
Recreation Area. The second, 
phase has been a series of 
very sophisticated workshops 
held throughout the area that 
are encouraging people to 
help us reach decisions 

The Bay area is notorious for 
having people who want to be 
involved in whatever is going 
on That was the background 
that brought about the formu- 
lation of this park, the real de- 
sire of people to have a voice. 
The Citizens Advisory Com- 
mission has the overriding 
responsibility to devise the 

Eldon Beck: The big thing is 
how do you identify the recre- 
ation user in the Bay area'^ It 
finally focuses on the quality 
of existing transportation, the 
ability to get to the site. 

Ron Treabess: The other as- 
pect of contacting the public 
and recording facts was that in 
addition to the data collection 
of the people throughout the 
Bay area, there's a very real 
situation of political and plan- 
ning entities within the Bay 
area that can either affect us 
or be affected by us. So the 
park undertook a series of 
meetings with these various 
groups to try to create the 
necessary liaison and rapport 

Bill Whalen: We made a very 
conscious effort to get in 
touch with all of the regional 
bodies, elected officials, 
appointed ones, and commis- 
sions We spent an hour or two 
in an informal setting with 
them talking about where we 
were in the planning process 
because we do interrelate so 
much with people such as the 
directors of the Golden Gate 
Bridge and Highway District, 
with the supervisors in both 
Marin County and San Fran- 
cisco County, with the water 

quality people, with the Bay 
Conservation and Develop- 
ment Commission, the Asso- 
ciation of Bay Area Govern- 
ments and it goes on and on 
and on and you only have to 
fail to meet with just one of 
these groups one time and 
It s brought to your attention 
quite quickly. 

The workshops have been 
announced through a donation 
of the Municipal Transit Dis- 
trict that put posters in 400 
buses A window poster was 
developed that announced the 
workshops and it was placed 
in community and youth 

The newspapers were of tre- 
mendous aid as were local 
newsletters telling the Bay 
area about what was going on 
There hasn t been a tremen- 
dous turnout in numbers but 
there has been a tremendous 
turnout as to input at the 

The workshops themselves 
start with a slide show and 
then break into small groups 
so that we can have an effec- 
tive communication The al- 
ternatives developed from the 
summary of the workshops 
will be ready by the early part 
of next year A plan will be in 
position for presentation by 
June 1, 1976. 


Governor's Remarks 

Richard D. Lamm was inaugu- 
rated Governor of Colorado in 
January, 1975. From 1966-74 
he was a member of the Colo- 
rado House of Representatives 
and served as Assistant Minority 
Leader during the last three 
years of his term. As a legislator. 
Mr, Lamm was chief sponsor of 
legislation providing tax relief 
for the elderly, no-fault automo- 
bile insurance, and medical 
licensing revisions. An advocate 
for careful use of the state's 
natural resources, he has been a 
strong environmental voice in 
Colorado for many years 

Governor Lamm s remarks were 
delivered by Roy Romer, 
Executive Assistant to the 

San Francisco's Golden Gate 
Bridge is the focal point for the 
Golden Gate Recreation Area 

Colorado is proud to have this 
first Federal Regional Design 
Assembly here in Denver. We 
appreciate the recognition 
being given to this state by the 
selection of Colorado as the 
location forthisinnpressive con- 
ference. We claim some credit 
for this state, through the 
Colorado Council on the Arts 
and Humanities, because last 
year Colorado was the second 
state in the country to sponsor 
a state level design confer- 
ence. Five other states have 
now followed that lead and are 
also recognizing that design 
IS an important facet of the 
function of government 

It took the United States gov- 
ernment nearly 200 years 
to develop a federal policy 
toward that group of creative 
activities we collectively call 
"The Arts, " and to create a 
workable means of implement- 
ing that policy. The National 
Endowment for the Arts 
recently celebrated its 10th 
anniversary as an agency of 
the federal government, and 
can look back on a record of 
practical success that might 
well be envied by many other 
federal agencies 

The reasons for that success 
are many, but one of the most 
critical factors has been an 
unusual willingness on the part 
of The National Endowment for 
the Arts to listen to those of us 
who live outside Washington 
and to allow us to identify our 
needs and to develop the 
means of addressing those 
needs. The partnership be- 
tween the Arts Endowment and 
the nation's State Arts Agen- 
cies has been an exceptional 
example of what can be done 
through cooperative efforts, 
cooperative efforts. 

Colorado was not far be- 
hind the federal government 
in developing a policy toward 
the arts and a means of im- 
plementing the policy. The 
Colorado Council on the Arts 
and Humanities, establishedby 
the state legislature in 1967, 
has become a nationally 
recognized leader among state 
arts agencies. 

What has happened in 

Washington and what has 
happened in Colorado oc- 
curred because of a growing 
recognition on the part of the 
federal and state government 
that the arts are as important to 
American life as are business, 
housing, employment and 
other major concerns. The 
arts offer an enrichment and 
meaning to Americans that is 
scarcely definable because of 
their unlimited potential. 

Design deserves to be 
recognized as an important 
part of art and an integral 
part of government. Good 
design results in the best 
utilization of the space within 
our buildings, the most at- 
tractive appearance of our 
structures, as well as the best 
presentation of our printed and 
visual materials. From both an 
aesthetic view and a good 
management view, we should 
insist upon good design in 

If we begin to think of design 
as a management tool for the 
most effective presentation of 
information, or the most effec- 
tive use of our space, or as a 
tool to make working condi- 
tions more enjoyable, then we 
are recognizing what design is 
all about. Design does not 
mean extravagance or frills. It 
costs no more to design a build- 
ing well than it does to create 
cold, unattractive and for- 
midable structures. If our state 
publications are to be read, the 
information should be pre- 
sented attractively. Within 
the confines of our current 
state austerity program there 
is no reason why a black and 
white letterhead cannot serve 
both the purposes of providing 
information and being attrac- 
tive to look at. 

The world we live in is harsh 
enough and the impositions we 
place on our natural environ- 
ment destroy existing beauty. 
It is little enough to ask that 
what we create should attempt 
to add to rather than detract 
from the beauty of our world. 

While you are in Colorado you 
will have an opportunity to see 
the extent to which Colorado 
citizens have gone to create 

and re-create beauty within our 
cities. You will visit Boulder, 
one of our cities which has 
been most aware of the costs of 
growth and development and 
which has worked to preserve 
space for natural beauty. You 
will see the restoration of some 
of Denver s early architecture 
at what we now call Larimer 
Square. Ancient houses on 
our Capitol Hill are being 
painstakingly restored and 
preserved because the archi- 
tecture of that period is of a 
quality and variety that can en- 
hance our city. We hope that 
you appreciate the design of 
our Civic Center, the early 
dream of a farsighted mayor. 
Mayor Speers, who took a lot 
of flak in his day for clearing 
out tenement houses in what 
is now our Civic Mall and who 
encouraged the design of our 
tree-lined parkways. 

We think we have a beautiful 
city because of the efforts of 
many people in the past. Much 
of our past is worth preserving 
and we need to continue to be 
aware that what we create 
through government will have 
a long time impact on our state 
and our city. Whatever you 
can do as a part of this con- 
ference to help us all learn to 
do a more effective job will 
help make Colorado a more 
beautiful state. For this we 
are enthusiastic and 


Federal Design Improvement 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Federal Regional Design 


Lani Lattin. Coordinator 

Joanne Marks. Denver 

Joan Shantz. Washington. DC 

Nancy Lucia. Administrative 

Federal Architecture Project 
Bill N Lacy, Executive Director 
Lois Craig. Staff Director 
Federal Design Education 
Lani Lattin, Coordinator 
Federal Graphics Program 
Jerome H Perlmutter, 

Federal Design Information 
Nick Chaparos, Coordinator 
Federal Design Resources 
Dennis Reeder. Coordinator 


"^ .^ 

■*. J 

Lani Lattin 

Joanne Marks 


Joan Shantz 




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1-1?: v'i 










Photo Credits 

Assembly photographs of 
conferees and speakers by 
Captain Bobby A. fvlolleur 
and James E. Johnson 

Otto Baitz. courtesy Caudil! 
Rowlett Scott: p 18 

Courtesy Marcel Breuer and 
Associates Architects: p 1 1 

Courtesy Daniel. Mann. Johnson, 
& Mendenhall: p 1 1 (topi 

Courtesy Department of the 
Interior, National Park 
Service: p 13 

Courtesy Department of 
Transportation, Federal Aviation 
Administration: p 24 

Frank Gelman: p 16 

Courtesy General Services 
Administration, Public Buildings 
Service: pp 15, 21 

Intermedia Systems 
Corporation: p 29 

Copyright David Plowden, 
1974. from Bridges. Reprinted 
by permission Viking Penguin 
Inc: p40 

.Courtesy Ervin H. Zube: p 37 


Book design: James E. Johnson 

Book editor: Mildred S. Friedman 

Text type: 9/1 1 point Helvetica 
Regular and Medium 

Captions: 8/9 point Helvetica 
Regular and Medium 

Text Paper: 80 lb. Michigan Matte 

Cover Paper: 80 lb. Mountie cover 
with Plastic Covering 


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